ChanRobles Virtual law Library

This web page features the
Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines - An Overview

Republic Act No. 8293



The law:

    State policy declaration:

    The State recognizes that an effective intellectual and industrial property system is vital to the development of domestic and creative activity, facilitates transfer of technology, attracts foreign investments, and ensures market access for our products.  It shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors, artists and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when beneficial to the people, for such periods as provided in this Act.

    The use of intellectual property bears a social function.  To this end, the State shall promote the diffusion of knowledge and information for the promotion of national development and progress and the common good.

    It is also the policy of the State to streamline administrative procedures of registering patents, trademarks and copyright, to liberalize the registration on the transfer of technology, and to enhance the enforcement of intellectual property rights in the Philippines. 

      Effect on international conventions and on principle of reciprocity:

    Any person who is a national or who is domiciled or has a real and effective industrial establishment in a country which is a party to any convention, treaty or agreement relating to intellectual property rights or the repression of unfair competition, to which the Philippines is also a party, or extends reciprocal rights to nationals of the Philippines by law, shall be entitled to benefits to the extent necessary to give effect to any provision of such convention, treaty or reciprocal law, in addition to the rights to which any owner of an intellectual property right is otherwise entitled by this Act. 

      Laws repealed:

    Republic Act No. 8293 repealed all Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent therewith, more particularly:

            1.  Republic Act No. 165, as amended[An Act Creating a Patent Office, Prescribing its Powers and Duties, Regulating the Issuance of Patents, and Appropriating Funds Therefor];

            2.  Republic Act No. 166, as amended[An Act to Provide for the Registration and Protection of Trademarks, Trade-Names, and Service-Marks, Defining Unfair Competition and False Marking and Providing Remedies Against the Same, and for Other Purposes].cralaw:red

            3.  Presidential Decree No. 49[Decree on the Protection of Intellectual Property];

            4.  Presidential Decree No. 285, as amended[Decree on the Protection of Intellectual Property];

          5.  Articles 188 and 189 of the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines.

      Parts of the law:

    The Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines is divided into five [5] parts, to wit:

            PART I     -     The Intellectual Property Office
            PART II    -     The Law on Patents
            PART III   -     The Law on Trademarks, Service Marks and Trade Names
            PART IV   -     The Law on Copyright
            PART V    -      Final Provisions 

      Intellectual property rights under the I. P. Code:

    The intellectual property rights under the Intellectual Property Code are as follows:

            1.  Copyright and related rights;
            2.  Trademarks and service marks;
            3.  Geographic indications;
            4.  Industrial designs;
            5.  Patents;
            6.  Layout designs [topographies] of integrated circuits; and
            7.  Protection of undisclosed information. 

      Government Agencies:

    The agency of the government in charge of the implementation of the Intellectual Property Code is the Intellectual Property Office which replaced the Bureau of Patents, Trademarks and Technology Transfer.  It is divided into six [6] Bureaus, namely:

            [1]  Bureau of Patents;
            [2] Bureau of Trademarks;
            [3]  Bureau of Legal Affairs;
            [4]  Documentation, Information and Technology Transfer Bureau;
            [5]  Management Information System and EDP Bureau; and
            [6]  Administrative, Financial and Personnel Services Bureau. 

      Functions of the Intellectual Property Office:

    The Intellectual Property Office is mandated under the law to:

            1.  Examine applications for the grant of letters patent for inventions and register utility models and industrial designs;

            2.  Examine applications for the registration of marks, geographic indication and integrated circuits;

        3.  Register technology transfer arrangements and settle disputes involving technology transfer payments covered by the provisions of Part II, Chapter IX on Voluntary Licensing and develop and implement strategies to promote and facilitate technology transfer;

            4.  Promote the use of patent information as a tool for technology development;

           5.  Publish regularly in its own publication the patents, marks, utility models and industrial designs, issued and approved, and the technology transfer arrangements registered;

            6.  Administratively adjudicate contested proceedings affecting intellectual property rights;

        7.  Coordinate with other government agencies and the private sector efforts to formulate and implement plans and policies to strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights in the country. 

      Significant features of the law:

           1.  A shift was made from the "first-to-invent system" under R. A. 165 [old law] to "first-to-file system" under the new law.

           2.  In  the case of inventions, the period of the grant was increased from 17 years from grant under the old law to 20 years from date of filing under the new law.

           3. In the case of utility models, the previous grant of 5 years plus renewals of 5 years each under the old law was changed to 7 years without renewal under the new law.

           4.  In the case of industrial designs, the previous grant of 5 years plus renewals of 5 years each was maintained.

           5.  Under the old law, there was no opposition proceedings and the examination is mandatory; under the new law, the examination is made only upon request [possibly with or without examination].

           6.  Under the old law, publication is made after the grant; under the new law, publication is effected after 18 months from filing date or priority date.

           7.  Under the old law, the penalties for repetition of infringement are:  PhP10,000 and/or 5 years of imprisonment and the offense prescribes in 2 years; under the present law, the penalties range from PhP100,000 to PhP300,000 and/or 6 months to 3 years of imprisonment and the offense prescribes in 3 years. 

      Significant changes in the trademark law:

        The significant changes in the trademark law under the old law [R. A. No. 166] and the present law are as follows:

            1.  Under the former, the element of use before filing a local application is a requirement although this is not required when the application is based on foreign registration; while under the latter, the element of use has been eliminated as a requirement for application.

            2.  Under the former, the term granted is 20 years renewable for 20-year periods; while under the latter, the term is for 10 years, renewable for 10-year periods.

         3.  Under the former, the affidavit of use or non-use is required on the 5th, 10th and 15th anniversaries; while under the latter, proof of use within 3 years from the filing of the application is required and the affidavit of use should be filed within 1 year from the 5th anniversary.

              4.  Under the former, a Supplemental Register is required to be maintained; while under the latter, it is no longer required.

             5.  Under the former law, penalties for infringement, unfair competition, false designation of origin and false description or representation range from fine of PhP500 to PhP2,000 and/or 6 months to 3 years and 4 months of imprisonment; while under the latter law, the penalties range from fine of PhP50,000 to PhP200,000 and/or 2 to 5 years of imprisonment. 

  Significant changes in the copyright law:

It is now required that after the first public dissemination of performance by authority of the copyright owner of certain specified work, there shall, for the purpose of completing the records of the National Library and the Supreme Court library, within three (3) weeks, be registered and deposited with it, by personal delivery or by registered mail, two (2) complete copies or reproductions of the work in such form as the directors of said libraries may prescribe.cralaw:red

The scheme of penalties for infringement has also been changed.  From the previous fine of Php200 to Php2,000 and/or imprisonment of 1 year, the current range of penalties are as follows:

  For first offenders - fine of PhP50,000 to PhP150,000 and/or imprisonment of 1 to 3 years

  For second offenders - fine of PhP150,000 to PhP500,000 and/or imprisonment of 3 to 6


  For third and subsequent offenders - fine of PhP500,000 to PhP1.5 Million and/or
   imprisonment of 6 to 9 years.


  In case of insolvency, the offender shall furthermore suffer subsidiary imprisonment.

Back to Top   -  Back to Home   -  Back to IPR Index

Since 19.07.98

ChanRobles Legal Resources:

ChanRobles On-Line Bar Review

ChanRobles Internet Bar Review :

ChanRobles MCLE On-line

ChanRobles Lawnet Inc. - ChanRobles MCLE On-line :