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Act No. 6541.The National Building Code of
REPUBLIC ACT NO.
AN ACT TO ORDAIN
CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES TITLE 1 -
ADMINISTRATIVEChapter 1.01 -
(a) This Act shall be known
as the "National Building Code of the Philippines" and shall
be referred to as the "Code".
SECTION 1.01.02: Declaration
(a) It is hereby
to be the policy of the State to safeguard life, health, property, and
public welfare, consistent with the principles of environmental
and control; and to this end, make it the purpose of this Code to
for all buildings and structured, a framework of minimum standards and
requirements by guiding, regulating, and controlling their location,
design, quality of materials, construction, use, occupancy, and
including their environment, utilities, fixtures, equipment, and
electrical, and other systems and installations.
SECTION 1.01.03: Scope
(a) The provisions of
Code shall apply to the design, location, siting, construction,
repair, conversion, use, occupancy, maintenance, moving, and demolition
of, and addition to, public and private buildings and structures.
repairs, and changes of use or occupancy in all buildings and
shall comply with requirements for new buildings and structures except
as otherwise herein provided. Only such portion or portions of the
building or structure which have to be altered to effect the addition,
alteration, or repair shall be made to conform to the requirements for
new buildings or structures. Alterations should preserve the aesthetic
value of the building to be altered.
(c) Where, in any
case, different section of this Code specify different materials,
of construction, or other requirements, the most restrictive shall
SECTION 1.01.04: Application
(a) This Code shall
to all buildings and structures constructed and any change or repair
thereon after the approval of said Code. Buildings or structures
before the approval of this Code shall not be affected thereby; Except,
where their continued use or occupancy is dangerous to life or limb; or
where alterations, additions, conversions, or repairs are to be made
this Code shall apply only to such portions of the buildings or
which have to be altered in order to effect such damages or repairs.
(b) This Code shall
to chartered cities, poblaciones of municipalities and municipal
with a population of at least two thousand (2,000) inhabitants, and to
barrios of urban areas with a population of at least two thousand
inhabitants. This Code shall also apply to any area where there are
(50) or more families per hectare.
(c) This Code shall
apply to any area proposed for or being developed into a new town site,
residential subdivision, commercial or residential site, school site,
project, and similar construction projects where five or more buildings
not covered by paragraph (d) of this Section will be constructed even
the poblacion or barrio population is less than two thousand (2,000) or
the density of population is less than fifty (50) families per hectare.
(d) The design and
requirements of this Code shall not apply to any traditional indigenous
family dwelling costing not more than five thousand pesos (P5,000.00)
intended for use and occupancy of the family of the owner only. The
type of family dwellings are those that are constructed of native
such as bamboo, nipa, logs, or lumber, wherein the distance between
supports or suportales does not exceed 3.00 meters (10 feet); and if
walls or socalos are used, such shall not be more than 1.00 meter (3
3 inches) from the ground: Provided, however, That such traditional
family dwelling will not constitute a danger to life or limb of its
or of the public; will not be fire hazard or an eyesore to the
and does not contravene any fire zoning regulation of the city or
in which it is located.
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(d) of this Section, this Code shall apply to Group A dwellings
on a commercial scale and intended for use by the general public.
SECTION 1.01.05 Building
Use Affecting Public Health and Safety
(a) Any building or
or any ancillary or accessory facility thereto, and any alteration or
to any building or structure already existing, shall conform in all
to the principles of safe construction, shall be suited to the purpose
for which the building is designed, and shall, in no case contribute to
making the community in which it is located at eyesore, a slum, or a
safeguards shall be observed in the design, construction, and use of
building or structure for the manufacture and production of any kind of
article or product which constitutes a hazard or nuisance affecting
health and safety, such as explosives, gas, noxious chemicals,
compounds, or the like.
SECTION 1.01.06: Maintenance
(a) All buildings or
both existing and new, and all parts thereof shall be maintained in a
and sanitary condition. All devices or safeguards, which are required
this Code in a building or structure when constructed, altered, or
shall be maintained on good working order.
SECTION 1.01.07: Insanitary,
Unsafe, Hazardous, or Dangerous Sites
(a) The land or site
which will be constructed any building or structure, or any ancillary
auxillary facility thereto, shall be sanitary , hygienic or safe. Where
the land or site is polluted, insanitary, unhygienic, unsafe, or
conditions contributing to or causing its being polluted, insanitary,
unsafe, or hazardous shall be reasonably improved or corrected, or
remedial measures shall be prescribed or incorporated in the design or
construction of the building or structure in accordance with the
of this Code.
(b) The land or site
which be constructed a building of structure or any ancillary or
facility thereto, for use of human habitation or abode, shall be at a
distance from streamers or bodies of water and/source of air considered
to be polluted, volcano or volcanic site, and building or structure
to be a potential source of fire or explosion, such as ammunitions
or dump and storage place for highly inflammable material.
SECTION 1.01.08: Dangerous
and Ruinous Buildings or Structures
(a) General. - The
provisions of this Code shall apply to all dangerous buildings, as
defined, which are now in existence or which may hereafter be
as well as to ruinous buildings as defined in Article 482 of the Civil
Code of the Philippines.
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Defined. - Dangerous buildings are those which are structurally
or not provided with safe egrees, or which constitute a fire hazard, or
are otherwise dangerous to human life, or which in relation to existing
use constitute a hazard to safety or health or public welfare, by
of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, fire hazard, or
abandonment; or which otherwise contribute to the pollution of the site
or the community to an intolerable degree. Any building or structure
has any or all of the conditions or defects hereinafter described, or
or defects similar thereto, shall be deemed to be dangerous building:
That such conditions or defect exists to the extent that the life,
property, or safety of the public or its occupant are endangered:
(1) Whenever any door,
passageway, stairway, or other means of exist is not of sufficient
or size, or is not so arranged as to provide safe and adequate means of
exit in case of fire or panic;
(2) Whenever the stress
in any materials member or portion thereof, due to all dead and live
is more than one and one-half times the working stresses or stresses
in this Code for new building of similar structure, purpose, or
Provided, That in determining working stress, the working stress
method of analysis shall be used, and in the case of engineering "overstress",
the ultimate strength method;
(3) Whenever any
thereof has been damaged by fire, earthquake, wind, flood, or by any
cause, to such an extent that the structural strength or the stability
thereof is materially less than it was before such catastrophe and is
than the minimum requirements of this Code for new buildings of similar
structures, purpose, or location;
(4) Whenever any
or member or appurtenance thereof is likely to fall, or to become
or dislodged, or to collapse and thereby injure persons or damage
(5) Whenever any
or member or any appurtenance or ornamentation of the exterior thereof
is not of such sufficient strength or stability, or is not so anchored,
attached, or fastened - place so as to be capable of resisting a wind
of one-half of that specified in this Code for new buildings of similar
structure; purpose, or location without exceeding the working stresses
permitted for such buildings;
(6) Whenever any
thereon has wracked, warped, buckled, or settled to such an extent that
walls or other structural portions have materially less resistance to
or earthquake than is required in the case similar new construction;
(7) Whenever the
or structure, or any portion thereof, because of: (i) dilapidation,
or delay; (ii) faulty construction; (iii) the removal, movement, or
of any portion of the ground necessary for the purpose of supporting
building; (iv) the deterioration, decay, or inadequacy of its
or (v) any other cause, is likely to partially or completely collapse;
(8) Whenever, for any
the building or structure, or any portion thereof, is manifestly unsafe
for the purpose for which it is being used;
(9) Whenever the
walls or other vertica structural members list, lean, or buckle to such
an extent that the structure falls within the condition described in
preceding subparagraph (2), above, or whenever any portion thereof
a material reduction of the fire and weather resistance qualities of
required by this Code for newly constructed buildings of like area,
and occupancy in the same location;
(10) Whenever a
or structure, used or intended to be used for dwelling purposes,
of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, decay, damage, faulty
or arrangement, inadequate light, air, or sanitation facilities, or
is found to be unsanitary, unfit for human habitation, or in such a
that is likely to cause sickness or disease;
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(11) Whenever any
or structure, because of obsolescence, dilapidated, condition,
damage, inadequate exists, lack of sufficient fire-resistive
or other cause, is found to be a fire hazard;
(12) Whenever any
of a building or structure remains on a site after demolition or
of the building or structure is abandoned for a period in excess of six
months, so as to constitute a nuisance or hazard to the public;
(13) Whenever any
or structure is in such a condition as to constitute a public nuisance
defined in Article 694 and 695 of the Civil
Code of the Philippines.
(c) Abatement of
Buildings. In all cases of dangerous buildings, except those
by Article 482 and 694 to 707 of the Civil
Code of the Philippines, the Building Official shall order their
vacation, or demolition in accordance with the following procedure:
(1) Where the dangerous
building can reasonably be repaired such that it will no longer be
it shall be ordered repaired;
(2) Where the dangerous
building is such that to repair it would cost more than 50 per cent of
the current to replacement cost of the building, it shall be repaired
demolished at the opinion of the owner;
(3) Where the dangerous
building poses an immediate threat to life, limb, or property, it shall
be vacated immediately, then repaired or demolished in accordance with
subparagraphs (1) or (2) herein.
SECTION 1.01.09. Alternate
or new Design, Material, Method of Construction, or Workmanship; Tests:
(a) Any design,
method of construction, or workmanship not specifically included in
Code may be used: Provided, That such alternate or new design,
method of construction, or workmanship is at least the equivalent of
prescribed in this Code in effectiveness.
(b) Tests for design,
method of construction, or workmanship shall be prescribed by the
of Public Works and Communication in appropriate rules and regulations
SECTION 1.01.10: Municipal
and Provincial Ordinances and Regulations
(a) Local ordinances
conform to the Code and suppletory requirements hereto shall in no case
diminish minimum requirements embodied in this Code. The Secretary of
Works and Communications or, in the proper case, the Secretary of
shall take any and all appropriate steps in cases where local
conflict with the Code.
SECTION 1.01.11: Definitions
(a) The definitions in
A and the Tables in Annex B of this Code are hereby adopted as part
SECTION 1.01.12: Separability
(a) If, for any reason,
any section or provision of this Code shall be declared
or invalid, no other section or provision of this Code shall be
SECTION 1.01.13: Repealing
(a) Any and all
orders, ordinances, rules and regulations or parts thereof,
with the provisions of this Code, are hereby repealed or modified
SECTION 1.01.14: Effectivity
(a) This Code shall
effect upon its approval within the Greater Manila Metropolitan Area
in other areas where there are already existing local building codes,
four (4) years thereafter, in all other areas in the Philippines:
however, That this provision shall not prevent any city or municipal
or board from adopting this Code immediately upon its approval.
SECTION 1.02.01: Joint
Building and Environmental Planning Research and Standards Commission
is hereby created a Joint Building and Environmental Planning Research
and Standards Commission composed of two Senators, two Congressmen, and
five other members to be appointed by the President of the Philippines.
The members shall elect a Chairman from among themselves.
(1) The President of the
Senate shall designate the chairman of the Committee on Housing, Urban
Development and Resettlement and one Senator from the minority party as
members of the Commission.
(b) Duties and
The Commission shall have the following duties and responsibilities:
(2) The Speaker of the
of Representatives shall designate the Chairman of the Committee on
and one Congressman from the minority party as members of the
(3) The President of
Philippines shall appoint two architects, two engineers, and one
contractor chosen from those officially recommended by their respective
national professional organizations, to serve for four years or until
successors shall have been duly appointed and qualified.
(4) The members thereof
shall serve without compensation: except, That the members from the
organizations may receive a per diem of one hundred pesos (P100.00)
per meeting actually attended: Provided, That the total per diem the
may receive shall not exceed six hundred pesos (P600.00) per month. A
transportation allowance of two hundred fifty pesos (P250.00) shall be
granted each of the members from the professional organizations.
(1) Conduct or cause to
be conducted continuing research and studies on building, housing, and
environmental planning standards and requirements to safeguard life or
limb, health, property, and public welfare;
(c) Technical Staff.
The Commission shall be assisted by a Technical Staff which shall be
by an Executive Director and an Assistant Executive Director. All
shall be appointed by the Chairman subject to civil service laws,
(2) Prepare a draft of
uniform code of criteria, standards, and detailed specifications
design, construction, and other related matters suited to local needs
indigenous conditions for adoption by local governments to supplement
minimum standards provided in this Code;
(3) Prepare drafts of
planning, management and control codes, subdivision policies and
zoning regulations and other codes for legislative enactment; and
from time to time, changes in this Building Code for submission to
recommendation to the Secretary of Public Works and Communications as a
basis for the promulgation by the Secretary of the necessary rules and
regulations to carry out the provisions of this Code.
amount of two hundred and fifty thousand pesos (P250,000) or such
thereof as may be necessary for the operation of the Commission is
authorized to be appropriated out of any funds not otherwise
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973. Such sums may be necessary
the operating expenses of the Commission in succeeding fiscal years
be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.
SECTION 1.02.02: Secretary
of Public Works and Communications and Building Officials
(a) The Secretary of
Works and Communications, hereinafter referred to as the "Secretary",
promulgate such rules and regulations necessary to enable the Building
Official to enforce the provisions of this Code.
(b) In municipalities,
Municipal Engineer shall be the Building Official; Provided, That when
there is no such Municipal Engineer, or a duly licensed engineer
the duties of a Municipal Engineer, or a Land and Building Official,
Provincial Engineer, or in the absence thereof, the Public Works
within whose jurisdiction the municipality falls shall be the Building
Official. In case of cities, the City Public Works Supervisor shall be
the Building Official: Provided, That when there is no such
Public Works Supervisor, the City Engineer shall be the Building
For the purpose of the enforcement of the provisions of this Code, the
Building Official shall be under the supervision of the Secretary of
Works and Communications, any provision of law to the contrary
(c) Subject to the
of the Municipal Mayor, City Mayor, or Provincial Governor in the
case, and other civil service laws and rules, the Building Official may
appoint such number of officers, inspectors, assistants, or other
possessing the necessary qualifications and competency as may be
by the Municipal Council, City Council, or Provincial Board, as the
may be. He may deputize such technically qualified employees as may be
necessary to carry out the provisions of this Code. For purposes of
Subsection, the terms "necessary qualifications and competency" and
qualified" shall mean that the person to be deputized shall have passed
the highest grade of examination called for in the applicable law
the practice of the branch of engineering or architecture related to or
associated with the duties and powers which the person to be deputized
SECTION 1.02.03: Building
(a) Any person, firm,
corporation, including any department, office, bureau, agency of
of the government intending to construct, alter, repair, move, convert
or demolish any building or structure, or cause the same to be done,
obtain a building permit from the Building Official for whichever of
work is proposed to be undertaken for the building or structure, before
any such work is started.
(b) Appropriate rules
regulations shall be set by the Secretary concerning:
(1) Forms for application
for building permits;
(2) Procedures to be
in securing such permits;
(3) Procedures to be
in the issuance, suspension, and revocation of such building permits;
(4) Type, nature, and
of plans and specifications, and other requisite documents, which shall
be prepared and designed by a licensed architect or engineer.
(c) When authorized by
Building Official in accordance with the provisions of this Code, plans
and specifications need not be submitted for the following:
(1) Group A traditional
indigenous type of dwelling construction costing not more than three
pesos (P3,000.00); and
(2) Group J Division 1
of Type 1 conventional wood frame construction or of the traditional
type of construction costing not more than three thousand pesos
(d) The applicant for a
building permit for private buildings or structures after having
with all the requirements prescribed therefor in accordance with the
of this Code, shall be issued a building permit within fifteen (15)
from the date of payment of the permit fee for Groups A and J
and within thirty (30) days from the date of payment of the permit fee
for other Group Occupancies, unless the Building Official or his Deputy
authorized to issue the permit shall inform the applicant in writing
the permit should not be issued, and shall indicate thereon the
provisions of the Code violated by the applicant or the particular
not complied with. Within fifteen (15) days from the date of receipt by
the applicant of advice from the Building Official or his Deputy
to issue the permit why the building permit should not be issued, or
the building permit is suspended or revoked, the applicant may appeal
non-issuance, suspension, or revocation thereof, to the Mayor of the
city or municipality, or the Governor of the province where the
or structure for which the permit is being applied for is located. Said
appeal shall be decided within fifteen (15) days from receipt thereof,
otherwise, the applicant may bring the matter to the proper Court of
for final disposition.
(e) All public
shall conform to the provisions of this Code and the Building Official
of the city or province where the public building is located shall
the building permit therefor, stating in writing that such public
conforms to the requirements of the Code. For national public
the Secretary of Public Works and Communications shall issue a
that such a building conforms to the Code. Public buildings shall be
from payment of building permit, inspection, another fees.
SECTION 1.02.04: Fees
(a) Regulations on
permit, inspection and other fees, and for compliance with the same
be covered by city and municipal ordinances: Provided, That Traditional
indigenous family dwellings under Section 1.01.04 (d) shall be exempt
payment of building permit fees.
SECTION 1.02.05: Inspection
ad Certificates of Occupancy
(a) Inspection. The
licensed architect or engineer engaged by the owner to undertake
and detailed supervision of the construction shall periodically certify
that the construction conforms to the plans and specifications
in the application for a building permit. Upon submission of such
certifications during the progress of construction, the Building
shall periodically issue the required authority to continue with the
phases of construction, without prejudice to his right to conduct on
own initiative any inspection of the said construction. Upon completion
of the construction, the said duly licensed architect or engineer shall
submit to the Building Official the final certification that the
conforms to the provisions of the Code and with the detailed plans and
(b) Certificates of
The proper Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued to the applicant
seven (7) days from completion of the requirements for inspection and
and payment of any and all fees therefor, unless the building Official
or his Deputy issuing the Certificate shall show cause in writing why
Certificate should not be issued and shall indicate thereon the
provisions of the Code violated or the particular requirements not
with. Within fifteen (15) days from receipt by the applicant of the
from Building Official or his Deputy authorized to issue the
why the certificate should not be issued, or why the certificate is
or revoked, the applicant may appeal the non-issuance, suspension, or
thereof, to the Mayor of the chartered city or municipality, or the
of the province where the building for which the certificate is being
for is located. Said appeal shall be decided within fifteen (15) days
receipts thereof, otherwise, the applicant may bring the matter to the
proper Court of Justice for final disposition. The building may be
only upon issuance of the Certificate of Occupancy.
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SECTION 1.02.06: Violations
of This Code Covering Designs, Materials, Methods of Construction, and
(a) In all cases of
of this Code covering design, materials, methods of construction, and
the Building Official shall observe the following procedure in ordering
the alteration to conform to this Code or demolition of the building or
(1) Where the building is
in the process of construction, the construction of the portion or
in violation of this Code shall be stopped until the same shall have
altered to conform to this Code, unless such partial violation will
the stability and safety of the whole or part of the structure, in
case, the whole construction shall be stopped.
(2) Where a building or
portion thereof has been constructed, the following procedure shall be
case it can be
reasonably altered to conform to the requirements of this Code, it
be altered accordingly;
(2.2) In case the
will cost more than 50 per cent of the current construction cost of the
building, it shall be altered to conform to this Code or demolished at
the option of the owner;
(2.3) In case the
or portion thereof poses an immediate danger to life, limb, or
the same shall be vacated immediately, then altered to conform to the
of this Code or demolished in accordance with subparagraphs (1) and (2)
(3) If the owner, after receipts
of the order of alteration or demolition fails to comply with such
within a period of one year, said construction shall be declared a
and be abated in accordance with the provisions of Article 699 of the Civil
Code of the Philippines.
(b) This Code shall not
be construed to deprive any person the right to avail himself of any
all judicial proceedings or remedies available under existing laws.
(c) Nothing in this
is intended to diminish the powers vested in the different Boards of
of the various architectural and engineering professions as provided
in existence laws regulating the practice of architecture and
nor to restrict the designing engineering or architect in the exercise
of his professional discretion within the basic minimum standards and
embodied in Section 1.01.02 of this Code.
- FIRE AND
FOR FIRE ZONES SECTION 2.01.01:
(a) Fire Zones
Fire zones are areas within which only certain types of building are
to be constructed based on their use, occupancy, type of construction,
and resistance to fire.
in More Than One Fire Zone. If a building or structure is located
more than one fire zone and more than one-third of its total floor area
is in a more restricted fire zone, then the entire building shall
to the requirements for the more restricted area.
(c) Moved Building.
Any building or structure moved within or into any fire zone shall be
to comply with all the requirements for buildings of that fire zone.
Temporary buildings or structures conforming to the requirements of
this Code, used for the protection of the public around and in
with construction work may be erected in any of the fire zones: Provided,
that such work is allowed by special permit from the Building Official
and such is used only for a limited period of time.
(e) Center Lines of
For the purpose of this Chapter, the center line of an adjoining street
or alley may be considered an adjacent property line. Distance shall be
measured at right angles to the street or alley.
SECTION 2.01.02. Designation
of Fire Zones
(a) The Secretary shall
classify each type of fire zone in accordance to use, occupancy, type
construction, and resistance to fire subject to the provisions of this
(b) Based on the
of fire zones, City Counsels or Municipal Boards, by resolution, shall
divide cities and municipalities into fire zones. Such division shall
in accordance with the local physical and spatial framework plans or
recommendation of the local city or municipal development body.
REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS FOR FIRE PROTECTION
SECTION 2.02.01: Fire-Resistive
(a) Exterior bearing
nonbearing walls of Types II and III constructions shall have one-hour
fire-resistive rating; while those of types IV and V shall have
(b) Interior bearing
permanent partitions, floors, and roofs of Types II to IV constructions
shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating; while those of Type V shall
have three-hour fire-resistive rating for walls, one-hour
rating for partitions, and two-hour fire-resistive rating for vertical
openings, floors, and roofs.
(c) Structural frames
Types II and III constructions shall have one-hour fire-resistive
those of Type IV shall have two-hour fire-resistive rating; and those
Type V shall have three-hour fire-resistive rating.
(d) Exterior doors and
shall have three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating for all types of
SECTION 2.02.02: Fire-Resistive
and systems of fire-resistive purposes shall be classified according to
their fire-resistive ratings as determined by internationally accepted
testing methods, subject to the provisions of this Section.
Time Period Rating
(1) The following walls
and partitions shall have a one-hour fire-resistive rating: Solid
10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 15 centimeters (6
inches) thick; solid concrete, 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick; stud
covered on each side with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) lath and plaster,
1.6 centimeters (5/8 inch) of vermiculite gypsum board, or 2.5
(1 inch) of gypsum board; and 5 centimeters (2 inches) nominal
tongue and groove wood, or two layers of 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch)
and groove wood separated by sheet metal or asbestos paper and treated
on each side with a fire-retardant coating having a flame-spread rating
of 50 or less. Square-edged boards may be used is the layers are laid
right angles with each other.
(2) The following
shall have a one-hour fire-resistive rating: masonry or concrete, 10
(4 inches) thick; wood joists having two layers of flooring above and a
plaster or gypsum board ceiling, 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) in
- the two layers of flooring shall be separated by sheet metal or
building paper; 6.3 centimeters (2-1/2 inches) net thickness tongue and
grooved wood floors covered with 1.9 centimeters (3/4 inch) wood
laid at right angles thereto. The supporting beams for such floors
be not less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) in minimum dimension.
(3) The following
for metal structural members shall have one-hour fire-resistive rating:
2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of concrete; 3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) of
masonry; and metal lath and 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) of plaster.
(4) The following shall
also have a one-hour fire-resistive rating; wood colums, 20 centimeters
(8 inches) or more in least dimension; and wood beams, 15 centimeters
inches) or more in least dimension.
Time Period Rating
(1) The following
walls, and floors shall have a two-hour fire-resistive rating: solid
15 centimeters (6 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 20 centimeters (8
inches) thick; and solid concrete, 127 centimeters (5 inches) thick.
(2) The following
for metal structural members shall have a two-hour fire-resistive
3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) of concrete; 5 centimeters (2 inches) of
masonry; and two layers of metal lath and plaster with 1.9 centimeters
(3/4 inch) air space between and having a total thickness of 6.3
Time Period Rating
(1) The following
walls, and floors shall have a three-hour fire-resistive rating: solid
masonry, 17.8 centimeters (7 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 25.4
(10 inches) thick; and solid concrete, 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick.
(2) The following
for metal structural members shall have a three-hour fire resistive
centimeters (2 inches) of concrete; 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) of
Time Period Rating
(1) The following
walls, and floors shall have a four-hour fire resistive rating: solic
walls, 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick; hollow unit masonry, 30
(12 inches) thick; and solid concrete, 17.8 centimeters (7 inches)
(f) Steel Joists.
Steel joist floors shall have from one to four-hour fire-resistive
based on internationally accepted standards of engineering.
Materials required to be flame-proofed shall be treated with a
having flame-spread rating of 50 less as determined by the "Tunnel
SECTION 2.02.03: Interior
Wall and Ceiling Finish
for interior walls and ceilings of any building shall be classified
to their flame-spread characteristics using the internationally
"Tunnel Test" or other equivalent test for fire protection. The class
materials according to flame-spread characteristics shall be determined
for each occupancy group. The smoke density shall not be greater than
obtain from the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions when
tested in accordance with the "Tunnel Test" in the way intended for
The products of combustion shall be no more toxic than the burning of
wood under similar conditions.
(b) Interior Finish
Interior walls and ceiling finish shall mean interior wainscoting,
paneling, or other finish applied structurally or for decoration,
correction, surface insulation or similar purposes. Requirements for
shall not apply to trim, doors, and windows or their frames, nor to
which are less than one millimeter (0.039 inch) in thickness cemented
an incombustible backing. Interior finish materials applied to walls
ceilings shall be tested as specified herein and regulated for purposes
of limiting flame-spread.
SECTION 2.02.04: Promulgation
of Fire-Resistive Regulations
(a) The Secretary shall
promulgate appropriate standards and regulations on the testing of
for flame-spread characteristics; application of controlled interior
finishes based on occupancy; materials and tests on fire dampers, fire
tests of building construction and materials, fire tests of door
tin-clad fire doors, fire test of window assemblies, installation of
door and fire windows, and smoke and fire detectors for fire protective
signaling systems; fire-resistive protection of structural members;
walls and partitions; fire-resistive floor-ceilings or roof-ceilings;
assemblies for protection of openings; and fire-retardant roof
BASED ON OCCUPANCYChapter
OF ALL BUILDINGS BYUSE OR
GENERAL REQUIREMENTSFOR ALL
SECTION 3.01.01: Occupancy
(a) Building proposed,
construction shall be identified according to its use or the character
of its occupancy and shall be classified as follows:
(1) Group A - Residential:
Dwellings. Group A Occupancies shall include dwellings.
(2) Group B -
Hotels and Apartments. - Group B Occupancies shall include boarding or
lodging houses, hotels, apartment houses, convents, and monasteries
accomodating more than 10 persons).
chan robles virtual law
(3) Group C - Education
and Recreation. Group C Occupancies shall be any building used for
or day care purposes more than eight hours per week, involving
for instruction, education, or recreation, and not classed in Group I
in Divisions 1 and 2 of Group H Occupancies.
(4) Group D -
Group D Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Mental hospitals,
sanitariums, jails, prisons, reformatories, and buildings where
liberties of inmates are similarly restrained; Division 2 - Nurseries
full-time care of children under kindergarten age, hospitals,
nursing homes with non-ambulatory patients, and similar buildings (each
accommodating more than five persons); Division 3 - Nursing homes for
patients, homes for children of kindergarten age or over (each
more than five persons); Provided, That Group D Occupancies shall not
buildings used only for private residential purposes or for a family
(5) Group E - Business
Mercantile. Group E Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Gasoline
and service stations; storage garage and boat storage structures where
no work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no
flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids; Division 2 -
and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments
having an occupant load test than 100, printing plants, municipal
and fire stations, factories and workshops using materials not highly
or combustible, storage and sales room for combustible goods, and paint
stores without bulk handling, and Division 3 -Aircraft hangars where no
repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring
no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids; open
garages and heliports.
(6) Group F -
Group F Occupancies shall include: Ice plants, power plants, pumping
cold storage, and creameries; factories and workshops using
and non-explosive materials; and storage and sales rooms of
and non-explosive materials.
(7) Group G - Storage
Hazardous. Group G Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Storage and
handling of hazardous and highly flammable or explosive materials other
than flammable liquids; Division 2 - Storage and handling of flammable
liquids; dry cleaning plants using flammable liquids; paint stores with
bulk handling; paint shops and spray painting rooms, and shops;
3 - Wood working establishments, planning mills and box factories,
factories where loose, combustible fibers or dust are manufactured,
or generated; warehouses where highly combustible material is stored;
4 - Repair garages; and Division 5 - Aircraft repair hangars.
(8) Group H - Assembly
Than Group I. Group H Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Any
building with a stage and an occupant load of less than 100 in the
Division 2 - Any assembly building without a stage and having an
load of 300 or more in the building; Division 3 - Any assembly building
without a stage and having an occupant load of less than 300 in the
including such buildings used for school purposes less than eight hours
per week; and Division 4 - Stadiums, reviewing stands, amusement park
not included within Group I or Divisions 1, 2, and 3, Group H
(9) Group I - Assembly
Load 1000 or More. Group I Occupancies shall be any assembly building
a stage and an occupant load of 1000 or more in the building.
(10) Group J -
Group J Occupancies shall include: Division 1 - Private garages,
sheds, and agricultural buildings; Division 2 - Fences over 1.80 meters
(6 feet) high, tanks, and towers.
(b) Other subgroupings
divisions within Groups A to J may be determined by the Secretary. Any
other occupancy not mentioned specifically in this Section, or about
there is any question, shall be included in the Group which its use
nearly resembles based on the existing or proposed life and fire hazard.
(c) The Building
shall identify and indicate in the Certificate of Occupancy the
classification to which a building or structure to be constructed
SECTION 3.01.02: Change
(a) No change shall be
in the character of occupancies or use of any building which would
the building in a different division of the same group of occupancy or
in a different group of occupancies, unless such buildings is made to
with the requirements for such division or group of occupancy: Except,
That the character of occupancy of existing buildings may be changed
to the approval of the Building Official and the building may be
for purposes set forth in other Groups without conforming to all the
for those Groups, provided the new or proposed use is less hazardous,
on life and fire risk, than the existing use.
SECTION 3.01.03: Mixed
a building is used for more than one occupancy purposes, each part of
building comprising a distinct "Occupancy" shall be separated from any
other occupancy. When a building is used for more than one occupancy
it shall be subject to the most restrictive requirements for the
concerned: Except, - (1) When a one-story building houses more than one
occupancy, each portion of the building shall conform to the
for the occupancy housed therein, and the area of the building shall be
such that the sum of the actual areas divided by the allowable area for
each separate occupancy shall not exceed one; and (2) Where minor
uses do not occupy more than 10 per cent of the area of any floor of a
building, nor more than 10 per cent of the basis are permitted in the
requirements. The major use of the building shall determine the
classification provided the uses are separated in accordance with
for occupancy separation.
(b) Forms of
Separation. Occupancy separations shall be vertical or horizontal
both, or when necessary, of such other form as may be required to
a complete separation between the various occupancy divisions in the
(c) Types of
Separation. Occupancy separations shall be classed as "One-Hour
"Two-Hour Fire-Resistive", "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive", and "Four-Hour
(1) A "One-Hour
Occupancy Separations" shall be of not less than one-hour
construction. All openings in such a separations shall be protected a
assembly having a one-hour fire-resistive rating.
(2) A "Two-Hour
Occupancy Separation" shall be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive
construction. All openings in such separation shall be protected by a
assembly having a one and one-half-hour fire-resistive rating.
(3) A "Three-Hour
Occupancy Separation" shall be of not less than three-hour
construction. All openings in walls forming such separation shall be
by a fire assembly having a three-hour fire-resistive rating. The total
width of all openings in any three-hour fire-resistive occupancy
wall in any one-story shall not exceed 25 per cent of the length of the
wall in that story and no single opening shall have an area greater
10.00 square meters (107.1 square feet). All openings in floors forming
a "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" shall be protected
vertical enclosures extending above and below such openings. The walls
of such vertical enclosures shall be of not less than ten-hours
construction, and all openings therein shall be protected by a fire
having one and one-half-hour fire-resistive rating.
(4) A "Four-Hour
Occupancy Separation" shall have no openings therein and shall be of
less than four-hour fire-resistive construction.
(d) Fire Ratings
Occupancy Separation. Occupancy separations shall be provided
various groups, subgroupings, or divisions of occupancies. The
shall promulgate rules and regulations for appropriate occupancy
in buildings of mixed occupancy: Provided, That where any
separation is required, the minimum shall be a "One-Hour Fire-Resistive
Occupancy Separation"; and where the occupancy separation is
structural members supporting the separation shall be protected by
SECTION 3.01.04: Location
(a) General. Buildings
adjoin or have access to a public space, yard, or street on not less
one side. Required yards shall be permanently maintained. For the
of this Section, the center line of an adjoining street or alley shall
be considered an adjacent property line. Eaves over required windows
be not less than 75 centimeters (30 inches) from the side and rear and
rear property lines.
(b) Fire Resistance
Walls. Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening
in accordance with requirements set by the Secretary. Projections
the exterior wall shall not extend beyond a point one-third the
to the property line from an exterior wall; or a point one-third the
from an assumed vertical plane located where fire-resistive protection
of openings is first required due to location on property, whichever is
the least restrictive. Distance shall be measured at right angles from
the property line. When openings in exterior walls are required to be
due to distance from property line, the sum of the area of such
shall not exceed 50 per cent of the total area of the wall in each
(c) Buildings on
Property and Buildings Containing Courts. For the purpose of
the required wall and opening protection, buildings on the same
and court walls shall be assumed to have a property line between them.
When a new building is to be erected on the same property with an
building, the assumed property line from the existing building shall be
the distance to the property line for each occupancy as set forth by
Secretary: Provided, That two or more buildings on the same property
be considered as portions of one building of the aggregate area of such
buildings is within the limits of allowable floor areas for a single
and that when the buildings so considered house different occupancies
are of different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed
for the most restricted occupancy or construction.
SECTION 3.01.05: Allowable
(a) Areas of One-Story
and Building Over One Story. Allowable floor areas for one-story
and buildings over one story shall not exceed the limits determined in
accordance with occupancy groups and types of construction.
(b) Area Separation
Each portion of a building separated by one or more area separation
may be considered a separate building provided the area separation wall
meet the requirements of this Code.
SECTION 3.01.06: Allowable
(a) The floor area
provided may be increased in certain specific instances and under
conditions, based on the existence of public space, streets, or yards
along the adjoining two or more sides of the building or structure.
SECTION 3.01.07: Maximum
Height of Buildings and Increases
(a) The maximum height
number of stories of every building shall be dependent upon the
of the occupancy and the type of construction, and shall not exceed the
limits determined by population density, building bulk, widths of
and car parking requirements. The height shall be measured from the
adjoining sidewalk or ground surface, provided that the height measured
from the lowest adjoining surface shall not exceed such maximum height
by more than 3.00 meters (10 feet): Except, That towers, spires, and
erected as a part of a building and not used for habitation or storage,
are limited as to height only by structural design if completely of
materials, or may extend not to exceed 6.00 meters (19 feet, 8 inches)
above the height limits for each occupancy group if of combustible
SECTION 3.01.08: Maximum
Requirements for Group A Dwellings: One Two Stories
and Lot Occupancy. The dwelling shall occupy not more than 90 per
of a corner lot and 80 per cent of an inside lot, and subject to the
on easements of light and view of the Civil Code of the Philippines,
be at least 2.00 meters (6 feet, inches) from the property line.
(b) Light and
Every dwelling shall be so constructed and arranged as to provide
light and ventilation.
(1) Habitable rooms,
toilet rooms and utility rooms shall have a height of not less than
meters (8 feet), measured from floor to ceiling.
(c) Sanitation. Every
dwelling shall be provided with at least one sanitary toilet and
washing and drainage facilities.
(2) Rooms shall have a
size of 6.00 square meters (65 square feet) with a least horizontal
of 2.00 meters (6 feet, 7 inches) for rooms of human habitations; 3.00
square meters (32 feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 1.50
(5 feet) for kitchens; and 1.20 square meters (13 square feet) with a
horizontal dimension of 90 centimeters (3 feet) for bathrooms.
(3) Windows shall be at
least 1/10th of the floor area of the room.
shall be of sufficient size and strength to support the load and
and shall be at least 30 centimeters (1 foot) thick and 60 centimeters
(2 feet) below the surface of the ground. Each post shall be anchored
such footings by straps and bolts of adequate size.
(e) Post or
The dimensions of wooden post or suportales shall be those found in
3.01 - A Dimension of Wooden Posts or Suportales (Annex B).
(f) Floor. The
load of the first floor shall be at least 200 kilograms per square
(40 pounds per square foot) and for the second floor, at least 150
per square meter (30 pounds per square foot).
(g) Roof. The
load for roofs shall be at least 150 kilograms per square meter (30
per square foot).
may be 75 centimeters (30 inches) wide, with a rise of 20 centimeters
inches) and a run of 23 centimeters (9 inches).
(i) Entrance and
There shall be one entrance and one exit.
There shall be at least one convenience outlet per 6.00 meters (20
feet) of wall measured along the floor and one light outlet for every
Family dwellings not more than two stories shall be exempt from the
requirements of the Mechanical Code.
SECTION 3.01.09: Requirements
for Group Occupancies
(a) Subject to the
of this Code, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations for each
group covering: allowable construction, height, and area; location on
exit facilities, light, ventilation, and sanitation; enclosure of
openings; fire-extinguishing system; and special hazards.
- TYPES OF
OF ALL BUILDINGS BY TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SECTION 4.01.01:
(a) The requirements of
this Chapter are minimum for the varying degrees of public safety and
to fire. Every building proposed for construction shall be identified
to the following:
(1) Type I. Type I
shall be of wood construction. The structural elements may be any of
materials permitted by this Code.
(2) Type II. Type II
shall be of wood construction with protective fire-resistant materials
and one-hour fire-resistive throughout: Except, That permanent
partitions may use fire-retardant treated wood within the framing
(3) Type III. Type III
shall be masonry and wood construction, Structual elements may be any
the materials permitted by this Code: Provided, That the building shall
be one-hour fire-resistive throughout. Exterior walls shall be of
(4) Type IV. Type IV
shall be of steel, iron, concrete, or masonry construction. Walls and
partitions shall be of incombustible fire-resistive construction:
That permanent nonbearing partitions of one-hour fire resistive
(5) Type V. Type V
shall be fire-resistive. The structural elements shall be of steel,
concrete, or masonry construction. Walls and permanent partitions shall
be incombustible fire-resistive construction.
(b) Other subtypes or
within Types I to V may be determined by the Secretary. Any building
does not conform entirely to a type of construction herein set forth
be classified into a type having an equal or lesser degree of
of the building.
(c) The Building
shall identify and indicate in the Certificate of Occupancy the
classification to which a building or structure to be constructed
SECTION 4.01.02: Change
(a) No change shall be
in the type of construction of any building which would place the
in a different subtype or type of construction unless such bidding is
to comply with the requirements for such subtype or type of
Except, That the type of construction of existing buildings may be
subject to the approval of the Building Official and the building may
constructed for purposes set forth in other Types without conforming to
all the requirements for those Types, provided the new or proposed
is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing
SECTION 4.01.03: Requirements
on Types of Construction
(a) Subject to the
of this Chapter, the Secretary shall promulgate regulations for each
of construction, and promulgate rules and regulations therefor,
structural framework, exterior walls and openings, interior walls and
floors, exits and stars construction, and roofs.
AND VENTILATION SECTION 5.01.01:
(a) Subject to the
of the Civil
Code on easement on light and view, and to provisions of this
every building shall be so constructed, arranged, and equipped as to
adequate light and ventilation.
(b) All building
shall face a street or public alley or private street which has been
(c) No building shall
altered nor arranged so as to reduce the size of any room or the
area of windows to less than that provided for buildings under this
or so as to create an additional room, unless such additional room
to the requirements of this Code.
(d) No building shall
enlarged, so that the dimensions of any required court yard would be
than that prescribed for any such building.
SECTION 5.01.02: Measurement
of Site Occupancy
(a) The measurement of
occupancy or lot occupancy shall be taken at the ground level and shall
be exclusive of courts, yards, and light wells.
(b) Courtyards and
wells shall be measured clear of any projections from the walls
such wells or yards with the exception of roof leaders, wall copings,
or steel fire escapes, not exceeding 1.20 meters (4 feet) in width.
SECTION 5.01.03: Percentage
of Site Occupancy
(a) The maximum site
shall be governed by the use, type of construction, and height of the
and the use, area, nature and location of the site, subject to the
of local zoning requirements and in accordance with rules and
set forth by the Secretary.
SECTION 5.01.04: Minimum
Size of Courts and Their Least Dimensions
(a) The minimum size of
courts and their least dimensions shall be dependent upon the use, type
of construction, and height of the building subject to the requirements
set forth by the Secretary: Provided, That in no case shall be
minimum horizontal dimension of courts be less than 2.00 meters (6
(b) All inner courts
be connected to a street or yard, either by a passageway with a minimum
width of 1.20 meters (4 feet) or by a door through a room or rooms.
SECTION 5.01.05: Ceiling
(a) Habitable rooms,
toilet rooms, storage rooms, and utility rooms shall have a ceiling
of not less than 2.40 meters (8 feet), measured from the floor to the
Provided, That for buildings of more than one story, the minimum
ceiling height of the first story shall be 2.70 meters (9 feet) and
meters (8 feet) for the second story, and succeeding stories. Garages
have an unobstructed headroom clearance of not less than 2.10 meters (7
feet) above the finished floor.
SECTION 5.01.06: Minimum
Size of Rooms and Their Least Dimensions
(a) The minimum sizes
rooms and their least horizontal dimensions shall be as follows: 6:00
(65 square feet) with at least nominal dimension of 2.00 meters (6 feet
7 inches) for rooms for human habitation; 3.00 square meters (32 square
feet) with a least horizontal dimension of 1.50 meters (5 feet) for
and 1.20 square meters (12 square feet) with a least horizontal
of 0.90 meter (3 feet) for bathrooms.
SECTION 5.01.07: Minimum
Air Space Requirements in Determining the Size of Rooms
(a) The following
air spaces shall be provided:
(1) For school rooms: 3.00
meters (106 cubic feet) with 1.00 square meter (10.7 square feet) of
area per person.
(2) For workshops,
and offices: 10.00 cubic meters (354 cubic feet) or air space per
at daytime and 14.00 cubic meters (494 cubic feet) of air space per
at night time.
(3) For habitable
14.00 cubic meters (494 cubic feet) of air space per adult person and
cubic meters (247 cubic feet) of air space per child under 10 years of
SECTION 5.01.08: Window
(a) Every room intended
for any use, not otherwise provided with air-conditioning or mechanical
ventilation system as herein provided in this Code, shall be provided
a window or windows whose total area of openings shall be at least
the floor area of the room, and such shall open directly to a court,
public way or alley, or water course.
SECTION 5.01.09: Mezzanine
(a) A Mezzanine floor
a partial, intermediate floor in any story or room of a building having
an area not more than one-half of the area of the room or space in
it is constructed.
(b) A mezzanine floor
be constructed with a clear ceiling height of not less than 1.90 meters
(6 feet, 4 inches) above and below.
SECTION 5.01.10: Vent
(a) Size. Vent
shall have a cross-sectional area of not less than 1/10th of a square
for every meter of height of shafts (1 square foot per 10 feet) but not
less than 1.00 square meter (10.7 square feet) in any case. No such
shall be less than 60 centimeters (2 feet) in its least dimension.
open to the outer air at the top for its full area, such shaft shall be
covered by a skylight having a net area of fixed louver openings equal
to the maximum required shaft area.
(c) Air Ducts.
ducts shall be connected to a street or court by a horizontal duct or
at a point below the lowest window opening on such shaft. Such duct or
intake shall have a minimum unobstructed cross-sectional area of not
than 0.30 square meter (3.2 square feet) with a minimum dimension of 30
centimeters (1 foot). The opening to the duct or intake shall not be
than 30 centimeters (1 foot) above the bottom of the shaft and the
surface or bathroom of court, at the respective ends of the conduct or
SECTION 5.01.11: Ventilating
shall have a glass area not less than that required for the window they
replace. They shall be equipped with movable sashes or louvers of an
net area not less than that required for openable parts in the window
replace or with approved ventilation of equal efficiency.
Rooms containing industrial heating equipment shall be provided with
artificial means of ventilation to prevent excessive accumulation of
or polluted air.
chan robles virtual law
(a) General. When
artificial ventilation is required, the equipment shall be designed and
constructed to meet the following requirements in air changes:
(1) Business and
grade occupied for office, clerical or administrative purposes, or as
sales, rooms, restaurants, markets, factories, workshops, or machinery
rooms, not less than three changes of air per hour shall be provided.
(1.2) For rooms
grade, occupied as bakeries, hotel or restaurant kitchen, laundries
than accessory to dwellings, and boiler rooms, of not less than ten
or air per hour shall be provided.
(2) Rooms in Public and
other rooms used for assembly purposes, not less than 0.85 cubic meter
(30 cubic feet) of air per minute shall be supplied for each person for
whom seating or other accommodation is provided.
SANITATION SECTION 5.02.01:
(2.2) For wards and
of institutional buildings, not less than 0.85 cubic meter (30 cubic
of air per minute shall be supplied for each person accommodated.
(a) All buildings
erected for human habitation should be provided with plumbing
installed in conformity with the National Plumbing Code adopted and
by the National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines pursuant
to Republic Act 1378, otherwise known as the "Plumbing Law".
FOR USE OF PUBLICPROPERTYChapter
STREETS SECTION 6.01.01:
(a) No part of any
structure or any of its appendages shall project beyond the property
of the building site, except as provided in this Code.
(b) The projection of
structure of appendage over a public property shall be the distance
horizontally from the property line to the outermost point of the
SECTION 6.01.02: Projection
into Alleys and Streets
(a) No part of any
or its appendage shall project into any alley or street except as
in this Code.
(b) No projection shall
be allowed on any national roads or public highway.
(c) Footing located at
2.40 meters (8 feet) below grade may project not more than 30
(12 inches) beyond the property line.
(d) Foundation may be
to encroach into public sidewalk areas to a width not exceeding 50
(1 foot, 8 inches): Provided, That the top of the said foundations or
does not reach beyond the level of a plane 60 centimeters (2 feet)
the established grade; and Provided, further, That said
does not obstruct any existing utility such as power, communication,
water, or sewer lines, unless the owner concerned shall pay the
entities for the re-routing of the parts affected.
SECTION 6.01.03: Projection
of Balconies and Appendages Over Streets
(a) The extent of any
over an affected alley or street shall be uniform within a block and
conform to the limitations set forth in Table 6.01-A: Projection of
and Appendages (Annex B).
(b) The clearance
the established grade of the street or sidewalk and the undersurface of
the balcony shall be not less than 3.00 meters (10 feet).
SECTION 6.01.04: Arcades
(a) Arcades shall be
on sidewalks when required by local ordinances. The with of the arcade
and its height over affected sidewalks shall be uniform within a block:
Provided, That, in no case, shall an arcade be less than 3.00
(10 feet) above the establishment sidewalk grade of the established
SECTION 6.01.06: Movable
Awnings or Hoods
the purpose of this Section, a marquee shall include by any object or
The horizontal clearance between the outmost edge of the marquee
the curb line shall be not less than 30 centimeters (1 foot). The
clearance between the payment or grounds line and the undersurface of
marquee shall be not less than 2.70 meters (9 feet).
Marquee shall be constructed of incombustible material or materials of
not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction. It shall provided
the necessary drainage facility.
Every marquee shall be so located as not to interfere with the
of any exterior standpipe connection or to obstruct the clear passage
stairways or exists from the building or the installation or
(a) Definition. An
awning is a movable shelter supported entirely from the exterior wall
a building and of a type which can be retracted, folded, or collapsed
the face of a supporting building.
(b) Clearance. The
horizontal clearance between the awning and the curb line shall be not
less than 30 centimeters (1 foot). The vertical clearance between the
surface of the awning and the payment or ground line shall be not less
than 2.40 meters (8 feet). Collapsible awnings shall be so designed
they shall not block required when collapsed.
SECTION 6.01.07: Doors
(a) Doors either sully
or when opening, shall not projects beyond the property line.
SECTION 6.01.08: Corner
Buildings with Chaflans
(a) Every corner
on a public street or alley less than 30.60 meters (12 feet) in width
be made with a chaflan or truncated angle at the corner. The face of
triangle so formed shall be at right angles to the bisector of the
of intersection of the street lines; Provided, That, in no
shall the length of the chaflan be less than 4.00 meters (13 feet, 4
In special cases, the Building Official shall determine the size and
of the chaflan.
(b) If the buildings is
arcaded, no chaflan is required notwithstanding the width of the public
street or alleys less than 12.00 meters (39 feet, 4 inches).
OR PEDESTRIANS DURING CONSTRUCTION OR
DEMOLITION SECTION 6.02.01:
(a) No person shall use
or occupy a street, alley, or public sidewalk for the performance or
under a building permit except in accordance with the provisions of
(b) No person shall
any work on any work on any building or structure adjacent to a public
way in general use by the public for pedestrian travel, unless the
are protected as specified in this Chapter.
(c) Any material or
temporarily occupying public property, including fences, canopies, and
walkways, shall be adequately lighted between sunset and sunrise.
SECTION 6.02.02: Temporary
Use of Streets and Alleys
(a) The use of public
shall meet legal requirements and subject to permit to be issued
by the Building Official.
SECTION 6.02.03: Storage
on Public Property
(a) Materials and
necessary for work to be done under a permit shall not be placed or
on public property so as to obstruct free and convenient approach to
use of any fire hydrant, fire or police alarm box, utility box, catch
or manhole or so as not to interfere with any drainage of any street or
SECTION 6.02.04: Mixing
Mortar on Public Property
(a) The mixing or
of mortar, concrete, or similar materials on public street shall not be
allowed except when the same are to be used on such streets or any
thereof such as curbs, gutters, manholes, sidewalks, culverts and the
SECTION 6.02.05: Protection
(a) All public or
utilities above or below the ground shall be protected from any damages
by any work being done under the permit. This protection shall be
while such work is being done and shall not obstruct the normal
of any such utility.
SECTION 6.02.06: Walkway
(a) A temporary walkway
not less than 1.20 meters (4 feet) wide shall be provided in lieu of
sidewalk, or in case there is none, in front of the building site
construction or demolition unless the Building Official authorizes the
sidewalk to be fenced and closed. Adequate signs and railings shall be
provided to direct pedestrian traffic.
(b) The walkway shall
capable of supporting a uniform live load of 633 kilograms per square
(150 pounds per square foot). a durable wearing surface shall be
throughout the construction period.
SECTION 6.02.07: Pedestrian
Pedestrian traffic shall be protected by a railing on the street side
the walkway extends into the roadway, by a railing when adjacent to
and by such other appropriate portion such as set forth in Table
Type of Protection Required for Pedestrian (Annex B).
(b) Railings. Railings
shall be built substantially and should be at least 1.00 meter (3 feet,
3 inches) in height.
shall be built of an approved material, not less than 2.40 meters (8
in height above grade, and to be placed on the side of the walkway
to the building site. Fences shall enclose entirely the building site.
Openings in such fences shall be provided with doors which shall be
closed at all times.
protective canopy shall have a clear height of 2.40 meters (8 feet)
the walkway, and shall be constructed structurally safe. Every canopy
have a solid fence built along its entire length on the construction
If materials are stored or work is done on top of the canopy, the edge
along the street shall be adopted by a tight curb board not less than
centimeters (1 foot) high and a railing not less than 1.00 meters (3
3 inches) high shall be provided. The entire structure shall be
to carry the loads imposed upon it: Provided, That the live load shall
be not less than 633 kilograms per square meter (150 pounds per square
SECTION 6.02.08: Maintenance
and Removal of Protection Devices
Such protection devices shall be properly maintained in place and kept
in good order for the entire length of time pedestrians may be
(b) Removal. Every
protection fence or canopy shall be removed within 30 days after such
is no longer required.
SECTION 6.02.09: Demolition
(a) The work of
any building shall not be commenced until the required pedestrian
structures are in place.
(b) The Building
require the permitee to submit plans and complete schedule for
Where such required, no work shall be done until such plans and/or
are approved by the Building Official.
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS SECTION 7.01.01:
(a) The design and
of all buildings and structures shall be in compliance with the
of the National Structural Code for Buildings, latest edition, adopted
and promulgated by the Board of examiners of civil engineers pursuant
Republic Act Numbered 544, as amended, otherwise known as the "Civil
TITLE 8 - DETAILED
Chapter 8.01 - GENERAL
SECTION 8.01.01: General
(a) Buildings proposed
construction shall comply with all the regulations and specifications
set forth governing quality, characteristics and properties of
methods of design and construction, type of occupancy, and
SECTION 8.01.02: Excavations,
Foundations, and Retaining Walls
to the provisions of Articles 684 to 686 of the Civil Code of the
on lateral and subjacent support, the quality of materials and design
structurally in excavations, footings and shall conform to the
recognized and accepted principles of engineering.
(b) Excavation or
(1) Excavation or fills
for any building structure and excavations or fills accessory thereto
be so constructed or protected that they do not endanger life and
(2) Whenever or
the depth of any excavation for a new construction is such that the
and subjacent support of the adjoining property or existing structure
would be affected in a manner that the stability of safety of the same
is in endanger, the person undertaking or causing the excavation to be
undertaking or causing the excavation to be undertaken shall be
for the expense of underpinning or extending the foundation or footings
of the aforementioned property or structure only when such underpinning
is necessary for the safety of the same during excavation.
(3) Excavations and
similar disturbances made on public property caused by public utilities
shall be repaired immediately and returned to its former condition
48 years from the start of such excavations and disturbances by the
utility franchise owner and the duly constituted officials thereof.
signs and safeguards shall be installed around and near the excavation
to protect the public from any danger of falling into the excavation.
and flagrant violations of this Section shall be the basis of
of any public utility franchise. This provision shall not exempt the
owner and the duly constituted officials thereof from any criminal or
liabilities arising from such excavations and disturbances to third
(c) Footings and
and Retining Walls
(1) Footings and
shall be of the appropriate type, of adequate size, and capacity in
to safely sustain the superimposed loads under seismic or any condition
to external forces that may affect the safety or stability of the
It shall be the responsibility of the architect and/or engineer to
the type and design of the same in accordance with generally accepted
and standards of engineering.
(2) Whenever or
there exists in the site of the construction on abrupt change in the
levels or levels of the foundation such that instability of the soil
result, retaining walls shall be provided and such shall be of adequate
design and type of construction in accordance with generally accepted
and principles of engineering.
SECTION 8.01.03: Veneer
is a nonstructural facing of brick, concrete, stone, tile, metal,
glass, or other similar approved materials attached to a backing or
components of the building for the purpose of ornamentation,
or enclosure that may be adhered, integrated, or anchored either on the
exterior or interior of the building or structure.
The design of all veneer shall comply with the following:cralaw:red
no load other than its own weight and the vertical dead load of veneer
(2) Surfaces to which
is attached shall be designed to support the additional vertical and
loads imposed by the veneer.
be given for differential movement of supports including that caused by
temperature changes, shinkage, creep, and deflection.
(4) Adhered veneer
backing shall be designed to have a bond to the supporting elements
to withstand shearing stresses due to their weights including seismic
on the total assemblage.
(5) Anchored veneer
its attachments shall be designed to resist external forces equal to
the weight of the veneer.
veneers shall be incombustible corrosion-resistant.
(c) Construction. The
person undertaking a causing a construction to be undertaken shall
to the satisfaction of the Building Official, internationally
and accepted principles governing dimensions of units, weights of
methods of construction, attachment or anchorage, bonding or anchorage,
bonding or adhesion, structural adequacy and type and rigidity of
and considerations for differential movements of supports including
caused by temperature changes, shinkage, creep, and deflection.
SECTION 8.01.04: Enclosure
of Vertical Openings
openings be enclosed depending upon the fire-resistive requirements of
a particular type of construction as set forth in this Code.
Walls and partitions enclosing elevators and escalators shall be
less than the fire-resistive construction required under the Types of
Enclosing walls of elevators shafts may consist of wire glass set in
frames on the entrance side only. Elevator shafts extending through
than two stories shall be equipped with an approved means of adequate
to and through the main roof of the building: Provided, That
buildings housing Groups G and F Occupancies equipped with automatic
systems throughout, enclosures shall not be required to escalators:
further, That the top of the escalator opening at each story shall be
with a draft curtain. Such draft curtain shall enclose the perimeter of
the unenclosed opening and shall extend from the ceiling downward at
30 centimeters (12 inches) on all sides. Automatic sprinklers shall be
provided around the perimeter of the opening and within 60 centimeters
(2 feet) of the draft curtain. The distance between the sprinklers
not exceed 1.80 meters (6 feet) center-to-center.
(c) Other Vertical
All shafts, ducts, chutes, and other vertical openings not covered in
(b), above shall have enclosing walls conforming to the requirements
under the Type of Construction of the building in which they are
In other than Group A Occupancies rubbish and linen chutes shall
in rooms separated from the remainder of the bidding by a One-Hour
Occupancy Separation. Openings into the chutes shall not be located in
required exit corridors or stairways.
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(d) Air Ducts.
ducts passing through a floor shall be enclosed in a shaft. The shaft
be as required in this Code for vertical openings. Dampers shall be
where ducts pierce the shaft enclosure walls. Air ducts in Group A
need not be enclosed in a shaft if conforming to the mechanical
of this Code.
SECTION 8.01.05: Floor
(a) Floor construction
be of materials and construction as specified under Title 2 on Fired
and Fire-Resistive Standards and under Title 4 on Types of Construction.
(b) All floors shall be
so framed and tied into the framework and supporting walls as to form
integral part of the whole building.
(c) The types of floor
used shall provide means to keep the beams and girders from spreading
installing either ties or bridging, with no laterally unsupported
of joints being permitted to exceed 2.40 meters (8 feet) except as
specified in this Code.
SECTION 8.01.06: Roof
Construction ad Covering
(a) Roof Coverings.
Roof coverings for all buildings shall be either fire-retardant or
depending upon the fire-resistive requirements of the particular Type
Construction. The use of combustible roof insulation shall be permitted
in all Types of Construction provided it is covered with approved roof
covering applied directly thereto.
(b) Roof Trusses.
All roofs shall be so framed and tied into the framework and supporting
walls so as to form an integral part of the whole building. Roof
shall have all joints well fitted and shall have all tension members
tightened before any load is placed on the truss. Diagonal and sway
shall be used to brace all roof trusses. The allowable working stresses
of materials in trusses shall conform to this Code. The minimum net
of the members after framing shall be used in determining the strength
on the truss at any point.
(1) Access. An
access opening shall be provided in the ceiling of the top floor of
with combustible ceiling or roof construction. The opening shall be
in a corridor or hallway of buildings or three or more stories in
and readily accessible in buildings of any height. The opening be not
than 55 centimeters by 75 centimeters (22 inches by 30 inches).
centimeters (30 inches) minimum clear headroom shall be provided above
the access opening. Attics with a maximum vertical clear height of less
than 75 centimeters (30 inches) need not be provided with access
Enclosed attics spaces formed of combustible construction shall be
into horizontal areas not exceeding 230 square meters (2500 square
by partitions extending from the ceiling to the roof. Such partitions
be not less than 13 millimeters (1/2 inch) thick gypsum wallboard, or
centimeters (1 inch) nominal thickness tight-fitting wood, 10
(3/28 inch) thick plywood or approved incombustible materials
supported. Openings in the partitions shall be protected by
doors constructed as required for the partitions: Except, That where
entire attic is equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing
system, the attic space may be divided into areas not to exceed 700
meters (7500 square feet).
(3) Draft Stops. Regardless
of the Type of Construction, draft stops shall be installed in trussed
roofs, between roof and bottom chord of trusses, in all buildings
1900 square meters (20,000 square feet). Draft stops shall be
as for attic area separations, and in accordance with Type of
Enclosed attics and enclosed rafter spaces formed where ceilings are
direct to the underside of roof rafters, shall have cross ventilation
each separate space by ventilating and openings protected against the
of rain. The net free ventilating area shall be not less than 1/150ths
of the area of the space ventilated, except that the area nay be
this provided by ventilators located in the upper portion of the space
to be ventilated at least 90 centimeters (3 feet) above eave or cornice
vents with the balance of the required ventilation provide by eave or
(d) Roof Drainage.
Roof systems not designed to support accumulated water shall be sloped
(1) Roof Drains.
Unless roofs are sloped to drain over roof edges or are designed to
accumulated water, roof drains shall be installed at each low point of
the roof. Roof drains shall be adequate in size to convey the water
to the roof drains.
(2) Overflow Drains
Scuppers. Where roof drains are required, overflow drains having
same size as the roof drains shall be installed with the inlet flow
located 5 centimeters (2 inches) above the low point of the roof, or
scuppers having three times the size of the roof drains may be
in adjacent parapet walls with the inlet flow line 5 centimeters (2
above the low the point of the adjacent roof and having minimum opening
height of 10 centimeters (4 inches). Overflow drains shall be connected
to drain lines independent from the roof drains.
Roof drainage overflow drains, when concealed within the construction
the building, shall be installed.
(4) Over Public
Roof drainage water from a building shall not be permitted to flow over
public property, except for Groups A and J Occupancies.
(e) Flashing. At
the juncture of the roof and vertical surface, flashing and
shall be provided.
SECTION 8.01.07: Stairs,
Exits, and Occupant Loads
construction of stairs, exits, and occupant loads shall conform to
for occupants of buildings, reviewing stands, bleachers, and
(1) Determination of
Occupant Loads. The occupant load permitted in any building or
thereof shall be determined by dividing the floor area assigned to that
use by the square meters or square feet per occupant according
accepted principles of engineering. The capacity of a building
mixed occupancies shall be determined by adding the number of occupants
of the various parts of the building classified as to Occupancy and
(b) Exits Required
Exit requirements of a building or portion thereof used for different
shall be determined by the occupant load which gives the largest number
of persons. No obstruction shall be placed the required width of an
except projections permitted by this code.
(3) Posting of Room
Any room having an occupant load of more than 50 where fixed seats are
not installed, and which is used for classroom, assembly, or similar
shall have the capacity of the room posted in a conspicuous place near
the main exit from the room. Approved signs shall be maintained in a
manner by the owner or his authorized agent, and shall indicate the
of occupants permitted for each room use.
(4) Changes in
Except in Group A Occupancies, changes in elevation of not less than 30
centimeters (12 inches) along any exit serving a tributary occupant
of 10 or more shall be by means of ramps.
(1) Number of Exits.
Every building or usable portion thereof shall have at least one exit.
In all occupancies, floors above the first story having an occupant
of more than 10 shall have not less than two exits. Each mezzanine used
for other than storage purposes, if greater in area than 185 square
(2000 square feet), or if more than 18.00 meters (60 feet) in any
shall have not less than two stairways to an adjacent floor. Every
or portion thereof, having an occupant load of 500 to 999 shall have
less than three exits. Every story or portions thereof, having an
load of 1000 or more shall have not less than four exits. The number of
exits required from any story of a building shall be determined by
the occupant loads of floors which exit through the level under
as follows: 50 per cent of the occupant load in the first adjacent
above (and the first adjacent story below, when a story below exits
the level under consideration) and 25 per cent of the occupant load in
the story immediately beyond the first adjacent story. The maximum
of exits required for any story shall be maintained until egress is
from the structure. For purposes of this Section, basements or cellars
and occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for
Floors above the second story, basements, and cellars used for other
service of the building shall have not less than two exits.
(2) Width. The
width of exists in meters shall be not less than the total occupant
served divided by 165 (in feet, by 50). Such width of exits shall be
approximately equally among the separate exits. The total exit width
from any story of a building shall be determined by using the occupant
load of that story, plus the percentage of the occupant loads of floors
which exit through the level under considerations as follows: 50 per
of the occupant load in the first adjacent story above (and the first
story below when a story below exits through the level under
and 25 per cent of the occupant load in the story immediately beyond
first adjacent story. The maximum exit width required from any story of
a building shall be maintained.
(3) Arrangement of
If only two exits are required they shall be placed a distance apart
to not less than one-fifth of the perimeter of the area served measured
in a straight line between exits. Where three or more exits are
they shall be arranged a reasonable distance apart so that if one
blocked others will be available.
(4) Distance to
No point in an unsprinkled building shall be more than 45.00 meters
(150 feet) from an exterior exit door, a horizontal exit, exit
or an enclosed stairway, measured along the line of travel. In building
equipped with a complete automatic fire-extinguishing system the
from exits may be increased to 60.00 meters (200 feet).
(c) Doors. The
herein shall apply to every exit door serving an area having an
load more than 10, or serving hazardous rooms or areas.
(1) Swing. Exit
shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any hazardous
areas or when serving an occupant load of 50 or more. Double acting
shall not be used as a part of fire assembly, nor equipped with panic
A double acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less
1300 square centimeters (200 square inches).
(d) Corridors and
Exit Balconies. The provisions herein shall apply to every corridor
and exterior exit balcony serving as required exit for an occupant load
of more than 10.
(2) Type of Lock or
Exit door shall be openable from the inside without the use of a
or any special knowledge or effort: Except, That this requirement shall
not apply to exterior exit doors in a Group E or F Occupancy if there
a conspicuous, readily visible and durable sign on or adjacent to the
stating that the door is to remain unlocked during business hours. The
locking device must be of a type that will be readily distinguishable
locked. Flush bolts or surface bolts are prohibited.
(3) Width and
Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the
of a door not less than 90 centimeters (3 feet) in width and not less
2.00 meters (6 feet, 7 inches) in height. When installed in exit
exits doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall
so mounted that the clear width of the exitway is not less than 70
(2 feet, 4 inches). In computing the required exit width, the net
of the exitway shall be used.
(4) Door Leaf
No leaf an exit door shall exceed 1.20 meters (4 feet) in width.
(5) Special Doors.
Revolving, sliding, and overhead doors shall not be used as required
(6) Egress from
Every required exit door shall give immediate access to an approved
means of egress from the building.
(7) Change in Floor
at Doors. Regardless of the occupant load, there shall be a floor
landing on each side of and exit door. The floor or landing shall be
with, or not more than 5 centimeters (2 inches) lower than the
of the doorway: Except, That in Groups A and B Occupies, a door may
on the top step of a flight of stairs or an exterior landing providing
the door does not swing over the top step or exterior landing and the
is not more than 19 centimeters (7-1/2 inches) below the floor level.
Glass doors shall conform to the requirements specified in Section
10.05.05. Other exit doors shall be so marked that they are readily
from the adjacent construction.
When additional doors are provided for egress purposes, they shall
conform to all provisions in the following cases: Approved revolving
having leaves which will collapse under opposing pressures may be used
in exit situations: Provided, That such doors have a minimum
of 2.00 meters (6 feet, 7 inches); or they are not used in occupancies
where exits are required to be equipped with panic hardware; or at
one conforming exit door is located adjacent to each revolving door
in a building, and the revolving door shall not be considered to
any exit width.
(1) Width. Every
corridor or exterior exit balcony shall be not less in which 1.12
(3 feet, 8 inches).
The required width of corridors and exterior exit balconies shall be
Except, That trim, handrails, and doors when fully opened shall not
the required width by more than 18 centimeters (7 inches). Doors in any
position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half.
(3) Access to Exits.
When more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged to allow
going to either direction from any point in the corridor or exterior
balcony to a separate exit, except for dead ends permitted.
(4) Dead Ends.
and exterior exit balconies with dead ends are permitted when the dead
ends does not exceed 6.00 meters (20 feet) in length.
Walls and ceilings of corridors shall be not less than one hour
construction: Except, That this requirement shall not apply to exterior
exit balcony railings, corridors of a one-story building housing a
E or F Occupancy occupied by one tenant only and which serves an
load of 30 less, nor to corridors, formed by temporary partitions.
exit balconies cannot project into an area where protected openings are
(6) Openings. Where
corridor walls are required to be one-hour fire-resistive construction
every interior door opening shall be protected as set forth in
recognized and accepted requirements for dual purpose fire exit doors.
Other interior openings, except ventilation louvers equipped with
automatic fire shutters shall be 6.3 millimeters (1/4 inch) fixed wire
glass set in steel frames. The total area of all openings other than
in any portion of an interior corridor wall shall not exceed 25 per
of the area of the corridor wall of the room which it is separating
stairway serving any building or portion thereof shall conform to the
requirements of this Code except stairs or ladders used only to attend
serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall be not less in width
1.12 meters (3 feet, 8 inches). Stairways serving an occupant load of
less may be 90 centimeters (3 feet) wide. Private stairways serving an
occupant load less than 10 may be 75 centimeters (2 feet, 6 inches)
Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width may more than 9
centimeters (3-1/2 inches).
(2) Rise and Run.
The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 19 centimeters
inches) and the run shall not be less than 25 centimeters (10 inches).
Except as provided under paragraph (d) the maximum variations in the
of risers and the width of treads in any one flight shall be 5
(3-1/2 inch): Except, That in private stairways serving an occupant
of less than 10, the rise may be 20 centimeters (8 inches) and run may
be 23 centimeters (9 inches).
(3) Winding Stairway.
In Group A Occupancies and in private stairways in Group B Occupancies,
winders may be used if the required width of run is provided at a point
not more than 30 centimeters (12 inches) from the side of the stairway
where the treads are the narrower, but in no case shall any width of
be less than 15 centimeters (6 inches) at any point.
Circular stairs may be used as an exit provided the minimum width of
is not less than 25 centimeters (10 inches). All treads in any one
between landing shall have identical dimensions within a 5-millimeters
landing shall have a dimension measured in the direction of travel
to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 1.20
(4 feet) when the stair has a straight run. Landings, when provided
not be reduced in width by more than 9.3 centimeters (3-1/2 inches) by
a door when fully open.
Where a basement stairway and stairway to an upper story terminate in
same exit enclosure, an approved barrier shall be provided to prevent
from continuing on into the basement. Directional exit signs shall be
as specified in this Code.
Landings. There shall be not more than 3.65 meters (12 feet)
shall have handrails on each side, and every stairway required to be
than 3.00 meters (9 feet) in width shall be provided with not less than
one intermediate handrail for each 3.00 meters (9 feet of required
Intermediate handrails shall be spaced approximately equal within the
width of the stairway. Handrails shall be placed not less than 75
(2 feet, 6 inches) nor more than 85 centimeters (2 feet, 10 inches)
the nosing of threads, and ends of handrails shall be returned or shall
terminate in newel posts or safety terminals: Except, in the following
cases: Stairways 1.12 meters (3 feet, 8 inches or less in width and
serving one individual dwelling unit in Group A or B Occupancies may
one handrails, except that such stairway open on one or both sides
have handrails provided on the open side or sides; or stairways having
less four than four risers need not have handrails.
Protection. All openings in the exterior wall below or within 3.00
meters (10 feet), measured horizontally, of an exterior exit stairway
a building over two stories in height shall be protected by a
fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating:
That openings may be unprotected when two separated exterior stairways
serve an exterior exit balcony.
Interior stairways shall be constructed as specified in this Code.
Where there is enclosed usable space shall be protected on the enclosed
side as required for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
Exterior stairways shall be of incombustible material: Except, That
on Type III buildings which do not exceed two stories in height, and
located in less fire-resistive Fire Zones, as well as on Type I
these may be of wood not less than 5 centimeters (2 inches) in nominal
thickness. Exterior stairs shall be protected as required for exterior
walls due to location on property as specified in this Code. Exterior
shall not project into an area where openings are required to be
Where there is enclosed usable space under stairs the walls and soffits
of the enclosed space shall be protected on the enclosed side as
for one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(12) Stairway to
In every building more than two stories in height, one stairway shall
to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope greater than 1 in 3.
required stairway shall have a headroom clearance of not less than2.00
meters (6 feet, 8 inches). Such clearance shall be established by
vertically from a plane parallel and tangent to the stairway tread
to the soft above all points.
(f) Ramps. A
conforming to the requirements of this Code may be used as an exit. The
width of ramps shall be as required for corridors.
Exit. If conforming to the provisions of this Code, a horizontal
may be required exit. All openings in a separation wall shall be
by a fire assembly having a fire-resistive rating of not less than one
hour. A horizontal exit shall lead into a floor area having capacity
an occupant load not less than the occupant load served by such exit.
capacity shall be determined by allowing 0.28 square meter (3 square
of net clear floor area per ambulatory occupant and 1.86 square meters
(20 square feet) per non-ambulatory occupant. The dispersal area into
the horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits as required by
Every interior stairway, ramp, or escalator shall be enclosed as
in this Code: Except, That in other than Group D Occupancies, an
will not be required for a stairway, ramp, or escalator serving only
adjacent floor and connected with corridors or stairways serving other
floors. Stairs in Group A Occupancies need not be enclosed.
(1) Enclosure walls shall
be of not less than two-hour fire-resistive construction elsewhere.
shall be no openings into exit enclosures except exit doorways and
in exterior walls. All exit doors in an exit enclosure shall
(2) Stairway and ramp
shall include landings and parts of floors connecting stairway flights
and shall also include a corridor on the ground floor leading from the
stairway to the exterior of the building. Enclosed corridors or
are not required from unenclosed stairways.
(3) A stairway in an
enclosure shall not continue below the grade level exit unless an
barrier is provided at the ground floor level to prevent persons from
continuing into the basement.
(4) There shall be no
usable space under stairways in an exit enclosure, nor shall the open
under such stairways be used for any purpose.
A smoke enclosure shall consist of a continuous stairway enclosed
the highest point top the lowest point by walls of two-hour
construction. In buildings five stories or more in height, one of the
exits shall be smokeproof enclosure.
(1) Stairs in smokeproof
enclosures shall be of incombustible construction.
(2) There shall be no
in smokeproof enclosure, except exit doorways and openings in exterior
walls. There shall be no openings directly into the interior of the
Access shall be through a vestibule with one wall at 50 per cent open
the exterior and having an exit door from the interior of the building
and an exit door leading to the smokeproof enclosure. In lieu of a
access may be by way of an open exterior balcony of incombustible
(3) The opening from
building to the vestibule or balcony shall be protected with a
fire assembly having one-hour fire-resistive rating. The opening from
vestibule or balcony to the stair tower shall be protected a
fire assembly having a one-hour fire-resistive rating.
(4) A smokeproof of
shall exit into a public way or into an exit passageway leading to a
way. The exit passageway shall be without other openings and shall have
walls, floors, and ceilings of two-hour exit resistance.
(5) A stairway in a
enclosure shall not continue below the grade level exit unless an
barrier is provided at the ground floor level to prevent persons from
continuing into the basement.
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(j) Exit Outlets,
and Passageways. Every exit shall discharge into a public way, exit
court, or exit passageway. Every exit court shall discharge into a
way or exit passageway. Passageways shall be without openings other
required exits and shall have walls, floors, and ceilings of the
but shall be not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction.
(1) Width. Every
exit court and exit passageway shall be at least as wide as the
total width of the tributary exits, such as required width being based
on the occupant load served. The required width of exit courts or exit
passageways shall be unobstructed except as permitted in corridors. At
any point where the width of an exit court is reduced from any cause,
reduction in width shall be affected gradually by a guardrail at least
90 centimeters (3 feet) in height. The guardrail shall make an angle of
not more than 30 degrees with the exit court.
(2) Slope. The
of exit courts shall not exceed 1 in 10. The slope of exit passageways
shall not exceed 1 in 8.
(3) Number of Exits.
Every exit court shall be provided with exits as required by this Code.
(4) Openings. All
openings into an exit court less than 3.00 meters (10 feet) wide shall
be protected by fire assemblies having a three-fourths-hour fire
rating: Except, That openings more than 3.00 meters (10 feet) above the
floor of the exit court may be unprotected.
(k) Exit Signs and
Exits shall be illuminated at any time the building is occupied with
having an intensity of not less than one-foot candle at floor level:
That for Group A Occupancies the exit illumination shall be provided
separate circuits or separated sources of power (but not necessarily
from exit signs) when these are required for exit sign illumination.
portion of every building in which are installed seats, tables,
equipment, or similar materials shall be provided with aisles leading
(1) Width. Every
aisle shall be not less than 90 centimeters (3 feet) wide if serving
one side, and not less than 1.07 meters (3 feet, 6 inches) wide if
both sides. Such minimum width shall be measured at the point farthest
from an exit, cross aisles, or foyer and shall be increased by 4
(1 1/2 inches) for each 1.50 meters (5 feet) in length toward the exit,
cross aisle, or foyer. With continental spacing, side aisle shall be
less than 1.12 meters (3 feet, 8 inches) in width.
(2) Exit Distance. In
area occupied by seats and in Group H and I Occupancies without seats,
the line of travel to an exit door by an aisle shall not be not more
46.00 meters (150 feet). With standard spacing, as specified in this
aisles shall be so located that there will be not more than six
seats between any seat and the nearest aisle. With continental spacing,
the number of intervening seats may be increased to 29 where exit doors
are provided along each aisle of the row of seats at the rate of one
of exit doors for five rows of seats. Such exit doors shall provide a
clear width of 1.75 meters (5 feet, 6 inches).
(3) Cross Aisle.
Aisles shall terminate in a cross aisle, foyer, or exit. The width of
cross aisle shall be not less than the sum of the required width of the
widest aisle plus 50 per cent of the total required width of the
aisle leading thereto. In Groups C, H, and E Occupancies, aisles shall
not be provided a dead end greater than 6.00 meters (20 feet) in length.
connecting the foyer or main exit with the cross aisles shall have a
width not less than the sum of the required width of the widest aisles
leading thereto plus 50 per cent of the total required width of the
aisles leading thereto.
(5) Slope. The
portion of aisles shall not exceed 1 in 8.
(1) Seat Spacing.
With standard seating the spacing of rows of seats from back-to-back
be not less than 84 centimeters (2 feet, 9 inches), nor shall less than
69 centimeters (2 feet, 3 inches) plus the sum of the thickness of the
back and inclination of the back. Automatic or self-rising seats shall
be measured in the seat-up position, other seats shall be measured in
seat-down position. With continental seating, the spacing of rows of
seats shall provide a clear width measured horizontally, as follows: 45
centimeters (18 inches) clear for rows of 18 seats or less; 51
(20 inches) clear for rows of 35 seats or less; 51 centimeters (21
clear for rows of 45 seats or less; and 56 centimeters (22 inches)
for rows of 46 seats or more.
(2) Width. The
of any seat shall not less than 45 centimeters (1 foot, 6 inches).
(n) Special Hazards
(1) Boiler Rooms.
Except in Group A Occupancies, every boiler room and every room
an incinerator or L-P Gas or liquid fuel-fired equipment shall be
with at least two means of egress, one of which may be a ladder. All
openings shall be protected as set by internationally recognized and
practice for dual purpose fire exit doors.
Handling. Film laboratories, projection rooms, and nitro-cellulose
processing rooms shall have not less than two exits.
Grandstands, and Bleachers
(1) Height of Stands.
Stands employing combustible framing shall be limited to 11 rows or
meter (9 feet) in height.
The minimum unit live load for reviewing stands, grandstands, and
shall be 488 kilograms per square meter (100 pounds per square foot) of
horizontal projection for the structure as a whole. Seat and footboards
shall be 178.5 kilograms per linear meter (120 pounds per linear foot).
The sway force, applied to seats, shall be 35.7 kilograms per linear
(24 pounds per linear foot) parallel to the seats and 14.8 kilograms
linear meter (10 pounds per linear foot) perpendicular to the seats.
forces need not be applied simultaneously with other lateral forces.
(3) Spacing of Seats
(3.1) Row Spacing.
The minimum spacing of rows of seats measured from back-to-back shall
55 centimeters (22 inches) for seats without backrests in open air
76 centimeters (30 inches) for seats with backrests; and 84 centimeters
(33 inches) for chair seating. There shall be a space of not less than
30 centimeters (12 inches) between the back of each seat and front of
seat immediately behind it.
(3.2) Rise Between
The maximum rise from one row of seats to the next shall not exceed 40
centimeters (16 inches).
For determining the seating capacity of a stand, the width of any
shall be not less than 45 centimeters (18 inches) nor more than 48
(3.4) Number of
Between Aisles. The number of seats between any seats and an aisle
shall not be greater than 15 for open air stands with seats without
9 for open air stands with seats having backrest in buildings, and 6
seats with backrest in building.
(4.1) Aisles Required.
Aisles shall be provided in all stands: Except, That aisles may be
when all the following conditions exists: Seats are without backrest;
rise from row to row does not exceed 30 centimeters (12 inches) per
the number of rows does not exceed 11 in height; the top seating board
is not over 3.00 meters (10 feet) above grade; and first seating board
is not more than 50 centimeters (20 inches) above grade.
obstruction shall be placed in the required width of any aisle or
When an aisle is elevated more than 20 centimeters (8 inches) above
grade, the aisle shall be provided with a stairway or ramp whose width
is not less than the width of the aisles.
(4.4) Dead End.
vertical aisle shall have a dead and more than 16 rows in depth
of the number of exits required.
shall have a minimum width of 1.07 meters (3 feet, 6 inches).
(5) Stairs and
The requirements in this Code shall apply to all stairs and ramps
for portions that pass through the seating area.
(5.1) Stair Rise and
Run. The maximum rise of treads shall not exceed 20 centimeters (8
inches) and the minimum width of the run shall be 28 centimeters (11
The maximum variations in the width of treads in any one flight shall
not more than 5 millimeters (3/16 inch) and the maximum variation in
height of two adjacent rises shall not exceed 5 millimeters (3/16 inch).
(5.2) Ramp Slope.
The slope of ramp shall be of approved nonslip material.
A ramp with a slope exceeding 1 in 10 shall have handrails. Stairs for
stands shall have handrails. Handrails shall conform to the
of this Code.
(6.1) Guardrails shall be
required in all locations where the top of seat plank is more than 1.20
meters (4 feet) above the grade and at the front of stands elevated
than 60 centimeters (2 feet) above grade. Where only sections of stands
are used, guardrails shall be provided as required in this Code.
(6.2) Railings shall be
1.07 meters (3 feet, 6 inches) above the rear of a seat plank or 1.07
(3 feet 6 inches) above the rear of the steps in an aisle when the
is parallel and adjacent to the aisle: Except, That the height may be
to 90 centimeters (3 feet) for guardrails located in front of the
(6.3) A midrail shall
placed adjacent to any seat to limit the open distance above the top of
any part of a seat to 3.00 meters (10 feet) where the seat is at the
end or at the extreme rear of the bleachers of grandstand. The
space shall have one additional rail midway in the opening: Except,
railings may be omitted when stands are placed directly against a wall
or fence giving equivalent protection; stairs and ramps shall be
with guardrails. Handrails at the front of stands and adjacent to an
shall be designed at resist a load of 74 kilograms per linear meter (50
pounds per linear foot) applied at the top rail. Other handrails shall
be designed at resist a load of 9 kilograms (20 pounds).
shall be provided for all rows of seats above the third row, or
at such point where the seating plank is more than 60 centimeters (2
(8.1) Distance to Exit.
The line of travel to an exit shall be not more than 45.00 meters (150
feet). For stands with seats without backrests this distance may be
by direct line from a seat to the exit from the stand.
(8.2) Aisle Used as
An aisle may be considered as only one exit unless it is continuous at
both ends to a legal building exit or to a safe dispersal area.
(8.3) Two Exits
A stand with the first seating board not more than 50 centimeters
inches) above grade of floor may be considered to have two exits when
bottom of the stands is open at both ends. Every stand or section of a
stand within a building shall have at least two means of egress when
stand accommodates more than 50 persons. Every open air stand having
without backrest shall have at least two means of egress when the stand
accommodates more than 300 persons.
(8.4) Three Exits
Three exits shall be required for stands within a building when there
more than 300 occupants within a stands, and for open air stands with
without backrests where a stand or section of a stand accommodates more
than 1000 occupants.
(8.5) Four Exits
Four exits shall be required when a stand or section of stand
more than 1000 occupants. Except, That for an open air stand with seats
without backrest four exits need not be provided unless there are
for more than 3000 occupants.
(8.6) Width. The
total width of exits in meters shall be not less than the total
load served divided by 165 (by 50 in feet): Except, that for open air
with seats without backrests the total width of exits in meters shall
not less than the total occupant load served divided by 500 (150 in
when exiting by stairs, and divided by 650 (by 200 in feet) when
by ramps or horizontally. When both horizontal and stair exits are
the total width of exits shall be determined by using both figures as
No exit shall be less than 1.07 meters (42 inches) in width. Exits
be arranged a reasonable distance apart. When but two exits are
they shall be spaced not less than one-fifth of the perimeter apart.
(9) Securing of
Chairs and benches used on raised stands shall be secured to the
upon which they are placed: Except, That when less than 25 chairs are
upon a single raised platform the fastening of seats to the platform
be omitted. When more than 500 loose chairs are used in connection with
athletic events, chairs shall be fastened together in groups of not
than three, and shall be tied or staked to the ground.
(10) Safe Dispersal
Each safe dispersal area shall have at least two exits. If more than
persons are to be accommodated within such an area, there shall be a
of three exits, and for more than 9000 persons there shall be a minimum
of four exits. The aggregate clear width of exits from a safe dispersal
area shall be determined on the basis of not less than one exit unit 56
centimeters (22 inches) for each 500 persons to be accommodated and no
exit shall be less than 1.12 meters (44 inches) in width. Exits shall
a reasonable distance apart but shall be spaced not less than one-fifth
of the perimeter of the area apart from each other.
SECTION 8.01.08: Skylights
(a) All skylights shall
be constructed with metal frames, except those for Groups A and J
Frames of skylights shall be designed to carry loads required for
All skylights, the glass of which is set an angle of less than 45
from the horizontal, if located above the first story, shall be at
10 centimeters (4 inches) above the roofs. Curbs on which the skylight
rests shall be constructed of incumbustible materials except for Type I
or II constructions.
(b) Spacing between
in one direction for flat wired glass skylights shall not exceed 7.60
(25 feet). Corrugated wired glass may have supports 1.50 meters (5
apart in the direction of the corrugation. All glass in skylights shall
be wire glass: Except, That skylights over vertical shafts extending
two or more stories shall be glazed with plain glass as specified in
Code: Provided, That wire glass may be used if ventilation
to not less than one-eighth the cross-sectional area of the shaft but
less than 1.20 meters (4 feet) is provided at the top of such shaft.
glass not wire glass shall be protected above and below with a screen
of wire not smaller than 12 U.S. gauge with a mesh not larger than 2.5
centimeters (1 inch). The screen shall be substantially supported below
(c) Skylights installed
for the use of photographers may be constructed of metal frames and
glass without wire netting.
(d) Ordinary glass may
used in the roofs and skylights for greenhouses, provided the height of
the greenhouse at the ridge does not exceed 6.00 meters (20 feet) above
the grade. The use of wood in the frames of skylights will be permitted
in greenhouses outside of highly restrictive Fire Zones if the height
the skylights does not exceeds 6.00 meters (20 feet) above the grade,
in other cases metal frames and metal sash bars shall be used.
(e) Glass used for the
of light, if placed in floors or sidewalks, shall be supported by metal
or reinforced concrete frames, and such glass shall be not less than
millimeters (1/2 inch) in thickness. Any such glass over 103 square
(16 square inches) in area shall have wire mesh embedded in the same or
shall be provided with a wire screen underneath as specified for
in this Code. All portions of the floor lights or sidewalk lights shall
be of the same strength as required for floor or sidewalk lights shall
be of the same strength as construction, except in cases where the
is surrounded by a railing not less than 1.07 meters (3 feet, 6 inches)
in height, in which case the construction shall be calculated for not
than roof loads.
SECTION 8.01.09: Bays,
(a) Walls and floors in
bay and oriel windows shall conform to the construction allowed for
walls and floors of the type of construction of the building to which
are attached. The roof covering of a bay or oriel window shall conform
to the requirements of the roofing of the main roof. Exterior balconies
attached to or supported by walls required to be of masonry, shall have
brackets or beams constructed of incombustible materials. Railings
be provided for balconies, landings, or porches, which are more than 75
centimeters (2 feet, 6 inches) above grade.
SECTION 8.01.10: Penthouses
and Roof Structures
(a) Height. No
or other projection above the roof when used as an enclosure for tanks
or elevators which run to the roof and in all other cases shall be not
extend more than 3.60 meters (12 feet)in height above the roof.
(b) Area. The
area of all penthouses and other roof structures shall not exceed
per cent of the area of the supporting roof.
(c) Prohibited Uses.
No penthouse, bulkhead, or any other similar projection above the roof
shall be used for purposes other than shelter of mechanical equipment
shelter of vertical shaft openings in the roof. A penthouse or bulkhead
used for purposes other than that allowed by this Section shall conform
to the requirements of this Code for an additional story.
Roof structures constructed with walls, floors, and roof as required
the main portion of the building except in the following cases:
(1) On Types II and III
buildings the exterior walls and roofs of penthouses which are 1.50
(5 feet) pr more from an adjacent property line may be of one-hour
The above restriction
not prohibit the placing of wood flagpoles or similar structures on the
roof of any building.
(2) Walls not less than
1.50 meters (5 feet) from an exterior wall of a Type IV building may be
of one-hour fire-resistive incombustible construction.
(e) Towers and
Towers or spires when closed shall have exterior walls as required for
the building to which they are attached. Towers not enclosed and which
extend more than 23.00 meters (75 feet) above grade shall have their
construction of iron, steel, or reinforced concrete. No tower or spire
shall occupy more than one-fourth of the street frontage of any
to which is attached and in no case shall the base area exceed 150
meters (1600 square feet) unless it conforms entirely to the type of
requirements of the building to which it is attached and is limited in
height as a main part of the building. If the area of the tower or
exceeds 10.00 square meters (107 square feet) at any horizontal cross
its supporting frame shall extend directly to the ground. The roof
of the spires shall be as required for the main roof of the roof of the
rest of the structure. Skeleton towers used as radio masts, neon signs,
or advertisement frames and placed on the roof of any building shall be
constructed entirely of incombustible materials when more than 7.60
(25 feet) in height and shall be directly supported on an incombustible
framework to the ground. No such skeleton towers shall be supported on
roofs of combustible framings. They shall be design to withstand a wind
load from any direction in addition to any other loads.
SECTION 8.01.11: Chimneys,
Fireplaces, and Barbecues
Chimneys shall be designed, anchored, supported, reinforced,
and installed in accordance with generally accepted principles of
Every chimney shall be capable of producing a draft at the appliance
less than the required for the safe operation of the appliance
thereto. No chimney shall support any structural load than its own
unless it is designed to act as a supporting member. Chimneys in an
building shall be anchored laterally at the ceiling and each floor line
which is more than 1.80 meters (6 feet) above grade, except when
within the framework on when designed to be free standing.
masonry chimneys shall have walls of masonry units, bricks, stones,
masonry units, reinforced concrete or equivalent solid thickness of
masonry and lined with suitable liners in accordance with the following
for Residential-type Appliances. Masonry chimneys shall be
of masonry units or reinforced concrete with walls not less than 10
(4 inches) thick or rubble stone masonry not less than 30 centimeters
inches) thick. The chimney linear shall be in accordance with this Code.
for Low-heat-Appliances. Masonry chimneys shall be constructed of
units or reinforced concrete with walls not less than 20 centimeters (8
inches) thick except that rubbles stone masonry shall be not less than
30 centimeters (12 inches) thick. The chimneys linear shall be in
with this Code.
for Medium-heat-Appliances. Masonry chimneys for medium-heat
shall be constructed of solid masonry units of reinforced concrete not
less than 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick, except that stone masonry
be not at less than 30 centimeters (12 inches) thick and, in addition
be lined with not less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) of firebrick laid
in a solid bed of fire clay mortar with solidity filled head, bed, and
wall joints, starting not less than 60 centimeters (2 feet) below the
connector entrance and extending for a distance of at least 7.60 meters
(25 feet) above the chimney connector entrance. Chimneys extending 7.60
meters (25 feet) or less above the chimney connector shall be lined to
for High-heat Appliances. Masonry chimneys for high-heat appliances
shall be constructed with double walls of sold masonry units of
concrete not less than 20 centimeters (8 inches) in thickness, with an
air space of not less than 5 centimeters (2 inches) between walls. The
inside of the interior walls shall be of firebrick not less than 10
(4 inches) in thickness laid in a solid bid of fire clay mortar with
filled head, bed and wall joints.
for Incinerators Installed in Multi-Story Buildings (Apartment-type
Chimneys for incinerators installed in multi-story buildings using the
chimney passageway as a refuse chute where the horizontal grate area of
combustion chamber does not exceed 0.84 square meter (9 square feet)
have walls of solid masonry or reinforced concrete, not less than 10
(4 inches) thick with a chimneys lining as specified in this Code. If
grate area of such an incinerator exceeds 0.84 square meter (9 square
walls shall be not less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) of firebrick
that higher than 9.00 meters (30 feet) above the roof of the combustion
chamber, common brick alone, 20 centimeters (8 inches) in thickness,
for Commercial and Industrial-type Incinerators. Masonry chimneys
commercial and industrial-type incinerators of a size designed for not
more than 115 kilograms (250 pounds) or refuse per hour and having a
grate area not exceeding 0.84 meter (9 square feet) shall have walls of
solid masonry or reinforced concrete not less than 10 centimeters (4
thick with lining shall extend for not less than 10 centimeters (4
for firebrick, which lining shall extend for not less than 12.00 meters
(40 feet) above the roof of the combustion chamber. If the design
or grate area of such an incinerator exceed 115 kilograms (250 pounds)
per hour and 0.84 square meter (9 square feet) respectively, walls
be not less than 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick, lined with not less
10 centimeters (4 inches) of firebrick extending the full height of the
(3) Linings. Fire clay
chimney lining shall be not less than 16 millimeters (5/8 inch) thick.
The lining shall extend from 20 centimeters (8 inches) below the lowest
inlet or, in the case of fireplaces, from the throat of the fireplace
a point above enclosing masonry walls. Fire clay chimney linings shall
be installed ahead of the construction of the chimney as it is carried
up, carefully bedded one on the other in fire clay mortar, with
joints left so smooth on the inside. Firebrick not less than 5
(2 inches) thick may be used in place of fire clay chimney.
(4) Area. No
passageway shall be smaller in area than the vent connection on the
(5) Height. Every
masonry chimney shall extend at least 60 centimeters (2 feet) above the
part of the roof through which it passes and at least 60 centimeters (2
feet) above the highest elevation of any part of a building within 3.00
meters (10 feet) to the chimney.
masonry chimney shall be corbel from a wall more than 15 centimeters (6
inches) nor shall a masonry chimney be corbeled from a wall which is
than 30 centimeters (12 inches) in thickness unless it projects equally
on each side of the wall. In the second story of a two-story building
Group A Occupancy, corbeling of masonry chimneys on the exterior of the
enclosing walls may equal the wall thickness. In every case the
shall not exceed 2.5-centimeter (1 inch) projection for each course of
(7) Change in Size
Shape. No change in the size or shape of a masonry chimney where
chimney passes through the roof shall be made within a distance of 15
(6 inches) above or below the roof joists or rafters.
more than one passageway is contained in the same chimney, masonry
at least 10 centimeters (4 inches) thick bonded into the masonry wall
the chimney shall be provided to separate passageways.
inlet to masonry chimneys shall enter the side thereof and shall be of
not less than 3 millimeters (1/8 inch) thick metal or 16 millimeters
inch) refractory materials.
materials shall not be placed within 5 centimeters (2 inches) of smoke
chamber walls or masonry chimney walls when built within a structure,
with 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) when the chimney is built entirely
(11) Termination. All
incineration shall terminate in a substantially constructed spark
having a mesh not exceeding 19 centimeters (3/4 inch).
opening shall be provided at the base of every masonry chimney.
(b) Fireplaces and
Fireplaces, barbecues, smoke chamber, and fireplace chimneys shall
be of solid masonry or reinforced concrete and shall conform to the
requirements specified in this Code. Factory-built metal room heating
may be used in accordance with generally recognized engineering
(1) Fireplace Walls.
Walls of fireplaces shall be not less than 20 centimeters (8 inches) in
thickness. Walls of fireboxes shall be not less than 25 centimeters (10
inches) in thickness: Except, That where a lining of firebrick is used
such walls shall be not less than 20 centimeters (8 inches) in
The firebox shall be not less than 50 centimeters (20 inches) in depth.
The maximum thickness of joints in firebrick shall be 6 millimeter (1/4
hoods used as a part of a fireplace or barbecue shall be not less than
No. 18 gauge copper, galvanized steel, or other equivalent
ferrous metal with all seams and connections of smokeproof unsoldered
The hoods shall be sloped at an angle of 45 degrees or less from the
and shall extend horizontally at least 15 centimeters (6 inches) beyond
the limits of the firebox. Metal hoods shall be kept a minimum of 40
(18 inches) from combustion materials unless approved for reduced
Approved metal heat circulators may be installed fireplaces.
(4) Smoke Chamber.
Front and side walls shall be not less than 20 centimeters (8 inches)
thickness. Smoke chamber back walls shall not be not less than 15
(6 inches) in thickness.
Walls of chimneys without flue lining shall be not less than 20
(8 inches) in thickness. Walls of chimneys with flue lining shall be
less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) in thickness and shall not be
in accordance with this Code.
(6) Clearance to
Material. Combustible material shall not be placed within 5
(2 inches) of fireplace, smoke chamber, or chimneys walls when built
within a structure, or within 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) when the chimney
is built entirely outside the structure. In lieu of 2.5-centimeter (1
clearance between chimney and exterior wall, 12 millimeters (1/2 inch)
gypsum board may be substituted. Combustible materials shall not be
within 15 centimeters (6 inches) of the fireplace opening. No such
material within 30 centimeters (12 inches) of the fireplace opening
project more than 3 millimeters (1/8 inch) for each 2.5-centimeter (1
clearance from such opening. No part of metal hoods used as part of a
barbecue, or heating stove shall be less than 40 centimeters (18
from combustible material. This clearance may be reduced to the minimum
requirements set forth in this Code.
(7) Areas of Flues,
and Dampers. The net cross-sectional area of the flue and of the
between the firebox and the smoke chamber of a fireplaces shall be not
less than the requirements according to internationally recognized and
accepted principles of engineering. Where dampers are used, they shall
be of not less than No. 12 gauge metal. When fully opened, damper
shall be not less than 90 per cent of the required flue area. When
opened, damper blade shall not extent the line of inner face of the
over the fireplace opening shall be supported by an incombustible
fireplace shall be provided with a brick, concrete, stone, or other
incombustible hearth slab at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) wider on
each side than the fireplace opening and projecting at least 30
(18 inches) therefrom. This slab shall be not less than 10 centimeters
(4 inches) thick and shall be supported by incombustible materials or
to carry its own weight and all imposed loads. Combustible forms and
shall be removed.
SECTION 8.01.12: Fire-Extinguishing
Systems: Where Required. Standard automatic fire-extinguishing
shall comply with requirements of generally recognized and accepted
and shall be installed in the following places:cralaw:red
(1) In every
cellar with an area of 200 square meters (2152 square feet) or more
is used for habitation, recreation, dining, study, or work, and which
an occupant load of more than 20.
(2) In all dressing
rehearsal rooms, workshops or factories, and other rooms with an
load of more than 10, assembly halls under Groups H and I Occupies with
an occupant load of more than 500, and if the exit doors of said rooms
are more than 30.00 meters (100 feet) from the nearest safe fire
area of the building or opening to a court or street.
(3) In all rooms used
storage or handling of photographic and x-ray nitrocellulose films and
other inflammable articles.
(b) Dry Standpipes.
building six more stories in height shall be equipped with one or more
(1) Construction and
tests. Dry standpipes shall be of wrought iron or galvanized steel
and together with fittings and connections shall be of sufficient
to withstand 20 kilograms per square centimeter (300 pounds per square
inch) of water pressure when ready for service, without leaking at the
joints, valves, or fittings. Tests shall be conducted by the owner or
representative or contractor in the presence of a representative of the
City or Municipal Fire Department whenever deemed necessary for the
of certification of its proper function.
chan robles virtual law
(2) Size. Dry
shall be of such size as to be capable of delivering 946 liters (250
per minute from each of any three outlets simultaneously under the
created by one fire engine or pumper, based on the existing city
available. The local Fire Department shall be consulted as to the
size and threads of those connections.
(3) Number Required.
Every building six or more stories in height where the area of any
above the fifth floor is 950 square meters (10,000 square feet) or less
shall be equipped with not less than one dry standpipe and an
standpipe shall be installed for each additional 950 square meters
square feet) or fraction thereof.
shall be located within stairway landings or near such stairways as
or immediately inside of an exterior wall and 30 centimeters (12
of an opening in a stairway enclosure of the balcony or vestibule of a
smokeproof tower or an outside exit stairway.
Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (2), all 10-centimeter
dry standpipes shall be equipped with a two-way Siamese fire department
connection. All 12.5-centimeters (5-inch) dry standpipes shall be
with a three-way Siamese fire department connection and 15-centimeter
dry standpipes shall be equipped with a fourway Siamese fire department
connection. All Siamese inlet connections shall be located on a street
front of the building and not less than 30 centimeters (12 inches) nor
more than 1.20 meters (4 feet above the grade and shall be equipped
clapper-checks and substantial plugs. All Siamese inlet connections
be recessed in the wall or otherwise substantially protected.
dry standpipes shall be extend from the ground floor to and over the
and shall be equipped with a 6.3-centimeter (2-1/2-inch) outlet not
than 1.20 meters (4 feet) above the floor level at each story. All dry
standpipes shall be equipped with a two-way 6.3-centimeters (2-1/2
outlet above the roof. All outlets shall be equipped with gate valves
(7) Signs. An
or bronze sign with raised letters at least 2.5 centimeters (1 inch)
shall be rigidly attached to the building adjacent to all Siamese
and such sign shall read: "CONNECTION TO DRY STANDPIPE."
(c) Wet Standpipes.
Every Group H and I Occupancy of any height and every Group C Occupancy
of two or more stories in height, whose corridors are flanked on both
and every Group C Occupancy of two or more stories in height, whose
serve only one row of rooms on one side and with an open court on the
side, and every Group B, D, E, F, and G Occupancy of three or more
in height and every Group G and E Occupancy over 1800 square meters
square feet) in area shall be equipped with one or more interior wet
extending from the cellar or basement into the topmost story: Provided,
That Group H buildings having no stage and having a seating capacity of
less than 500 need to be equipped with interior standpipes.
Interior wet standpipes shall be constructed as required for dry
(2.1) Interior wet
shall have an internal diameter sufficient to deliver 189 liters (50
of water per minute under 2.1 kilograms per square centimeter (30
per square inch) pressure at the lose connection, based on the
water supply. Buildings of Groups H and I Occupancies shall have wet
systems capable of delivering the required quantity and pressure from
two outlets simultaneously; for all other occupancies only one outlet
be figured to be at one time. In no case shall the internal diameter of
a vet standpipe be less than 5 centimeters (2 inches), except when the
standpipe is attached to an automatic fire-extinguishing system as set
by the internationally recognized and accepted engineering practices.
(2.2) Any approved
which determines pipe sizes on a pressure drop basis may be used to
pipe size for wet standpipe systems. The Building Official may require
delivery and pressure tests on completed wet standpipe systems before
(3) Numbered Required.
standpipes shall be so located that any portion of the can be reached
with a hose not exceeding 23.00 meters (75 feet) in length.
(4) Location. In
Groups H and I Occupancies, outlets shall be located as follows: one on
either side of the stage, one at the rear of the auditorium, and one at
the rear of the balconies. Where occupant loads are less than 500 the
requirements may be waived: Provided, That portable fire-extinguishers
of appropriate capacity and type are installed within easy access from
the said locations. In Groups B, C, D, E, F, and G Occupancies the
of all interior wet standpipes shall be in accordance with the
for dry standpipes: Provided, That at least one wet standpipe is
to cover not more than 650 square meters (700 square feet).
interior wet standpipes shall be equipped with a 3.8-centimeter (1-1/2
inch) valve in each story including the basement or cellar of the
, and located not less than e0 centimeters (1 foot) nor more than 1.50
meters (5 feet) above the floor.
hose threads in connection with the installation of such standpipes,
valves and reducing fittings, shall be uniform with that used by the
(7) Water Supplies.
interior wet standpipes shall be connected to a street water main not
than 10 centimeters (4 inches) in diameter, or when the water pressure
is sufficient, to a water tank of sufficient size as provided in
(8). When more than one interior wet standpipe is required in the
such standpipes shall be connected at their bases or at their tops by
of equal size.
(8) Pressure and
Tanks. Tanks shall have a capacity sufficient to furnish at least
liters (250 gallons) per minute for a period of not less than 10
Such tanks shall be located so as to provide not less than 11.3
(25 pounds) pressure at the topmost hose outlet for its entire supply.
Discharge pipes from pressure tanks shall extend 5 centimeters (2
into and above the bottom of such tanks. All tanks shall be tested in
after installation and proved tightly at a hydrostatic pressure 50 per
cent in excess of the working pressure required. Where such tanks are
for domestic purpose the supply pipe for such purposes shall be located
at or above the center line of such tanks. Incombustible supports shall
be provided for all such supply tanks and not less than 90-centimeters
(3-foot) clearance shall be maintained over the top and under the
of all pressure tanks.
(9) Fire Pumps.
pumps shall have a capacity of not less than 1346 liters (250 gallons)
per minute with a pressure of not less than 11.3 kilograms (25 pounds)
at the topmost hose outlet. The source of supply for such pump shall be
a street water main of not less than 10-centimeter (4-inch) diameter or
a well or cistern containing a one-hour supply. Such pumps shall be
with an adequate source of power of the building and shall be automatic
(10) Hose and Hose
Each hose outlet of all interior wet standpipes shall be supplied with
a hose not less than 3.8 centimeters (1-1/2 inches) in diameter. Such
shall be equipped with a suitable brass or bronze nozzle and shall be
over 23.00 meters (75 feet) in length. An approved standard form of
hose reel or racks shall be provided for the hose and shall be located
so as to make the hose readily accessible at all times and shall be
in the walls or protected suitable cabinets.
(d) Basement Pipe
Basement pipe inlets shall be installed in the first floor of every
store, warehouse, or factory where there are cellars or basements under
same: Except, Where in such cellars or basements there is installed a
system as specified in this Code, or where the cellars or basements are
used for banking purposes, safe deposit vaults, or similar uses.
(1) Materials. All
basement pipe inlets shall be of cast iron, steel brass, or bronze with
lids of cast brass or bronze and shall consist of a sleeve not less
20 centimeters (8 inches) in diameter through the floor extending to
flush with the ceiling below and with a top flange, recessed with an
shoulder, to receive the lid and flush with the finish floor surface.
lid shall be a solid casting and have a ring lift recessed on the top
so as to be flush. The lid shall have the words "FIRE DEPARTMENT
DO NOT COVER UP", cast on the top thereof. The lid shall be
in such a manner as to permit its removal readily from the inlet.
pipe inlets shall be strategically located and kept readily accessible
at all times to the Fire Department.
fire-extinguishing systems, including automatic sprinkles, wet and dry
standpipes, automatic chemical extinguishers, basement pipe inlets, and
the appurtenance thereto shall meet the approval of the Fire Department
of the particular municipality or city as to installation and location
and shall be subject to such periodic tests as may require.
SECTION 8. 01.13: Stages
There shall be one or more ventilators constructed of metal or other
material near the center and above the highest part of any working
raised above the stage roof and having a total ventilation area equal
at least five per cent of the floor area within the stage walls. The
equipment shall conform to the following requirements:
(1) Opening Action.
Ventilators shall open by spring action or force of gravity sufficient
to overcome the effects of neglect, rust, dirt, or expansion by heat or
warning of the framework.
if used in ventilators, must be protected against falling on the stage.
A wire screen, if used under the glass, must be so placed that if
it cannot reduce the required ventilating area of interfere with the
mechanism or obstruct the distribution of water from the automatic
penthouses, and supporting framework shall be designed in accordance
Each ventilator shall be arranged to open automatically after the
of fire by the use of an approved automatic closing device as defined
this Code. The fusible link and operating cable shall hold each door
against a minimum 13.5-kilogram (30-pound) counterforce exerted by
or counterweights. This minimum counterforce shall be exerted on each
through its entire arc of travel and for a minimum 115 degrees. A
control shall be provided.
Springs, when employed to actuate ventilator doors, shall be
of maintaining full required tension indefinitely. Springs shall not be
stressed more than 50 per cent of their rated capacity and shall not be
located directly in the air stream, nor exposed to the elements.
(6) Location of
Links. A fusible link shall be placed in the cable control system
the underside of the ventilator at or above the roof line, and shall be
so located as not to be affected by the operation of fire-extinguishing
(7) Control. Remote,
manual, or electrical control shall provide for both opening and
of the ventilator doors for periodic testing and shall be located at a
point on the stage designated by the Building Official. When remote
of ventilator is electrical, power failure shall not affect its instant
operation in the event of fire. Hand winches may be employed to
operation of manually controlled ventilators.
Curbs shall constructed as required for the roof.
(1) Gridirons, fly
and pin-rails shall be constructed of incombustible materials and fire
protection of steel and iron may be omitted. Gridirons and fly
shall be designed to support a live load of not less than 112 kilograms
per square meter (75 pounds per square foot). Each loft block well
be designed to support 37.2 kilograms per linear meter (250 pounds per
linear foot) and the block well shall be designed to support the
weight of all the loft block well served. The head block well must be
with an adequate strongback of lateral brace to offset torque.
(2) The main
sheave beam shall be designed to support a horizontal and vertical
distributed live load sufficient to accommodate the weight imposed by
total number of loft blocks in the gridiron. The sheave blocks shall be
designed to accommodate the maximum load for the loft blocks or head
served with a safety factor of five.
(c) Rooms Accessory
Stage. In buildings having a stage, the dressing room sections,
and storerooms shall be located on the stage side of the proscenium
and shall be separated from each other and from the stage by not less
a One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation.
A stage shall be completely separated from the auditorium by a
wall of not less than two-hour incombustible construction. The
wall shall extend not less than 1.20 meters (4 feet) above the roof
the auditorium. Proscenium walls may have, in addition to the main
opening at the orchestra pit level and not more than two openings at
stage floor level, each of which shall be not more than 2.00 square
(25 square feet) in area. All openings in the proscenium wall of a
shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one and one-half-hour
rating. The proscenium opening, which shall be the main opening for
performances, shall be provided with a self-closing fire-resistive
according to generally recognized and accepted engineering practices.
(e) Stage Floors.
The Type of Construction for stage floors shall depend upon the
based on the Type of Occupancy and the corresponding fire-resistive
All parts of the stage floor shall be designed to support not less than
185 kilograms per square meter (125 pounds per square foot). Openings
stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting trap doors.
(f) Platforms. The
Type of Construction for platforms shall depend upon the requirements
on the Type of Occupancy and corresponding fire-resistive requirements.
Enclosed platforms shall be provided with one or more ventilators
to the requirements of stage ventilators: Except, That the total area
be equal to five per cent of the area of the platform. When more than
ventilators is provided, they shall be so spaced as to provide proper
ventilation. Ventilators shall not be required for enclosed platforms
a floor area of 45.00 square meters (500 square feet) or less.
(g) Stage Exits.
At least one exit not less than 90 centimeters (3 feet) wide shall be
from a passageway not less than 90 centimeters (3 feet) in width to a
or exit court. An exit stair not less than 75 centimeters (2 feet, 6
wide shall be provided for egress from each fly gallery. Each tier of
rooms shall be provided with at least two means of egress each not less
than 75 centimeters (2 feet, 6 inches) wide and all such stairs shall
constructed as specified in this Code. The stairs required in this
need to be enclosed.
SECTION 8.05.14: Motion
Picture Projection Rooms
provisions of this Section shall apply only where ribbon type motion
film in excess of 22-millimeter (7/8-inch) width and electric are
equipment are used. Every motion picture machine using ribbon type in
of 22-millimeter (7/8-inch) width and electric arc projection
together with all electrical devices, rheostats, machines, and all such
films present in any Group C, I, or H Occupancy, shall be enclosed in a
projection room large enough to permit the operator to walk freely on
side and back of the machine.
Every projection room shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistive
construction throughout and the walls and ceiling shall be finished
incombustible material. The ceiling shall be not less than 2.40 meters
(8 feet) from the finished floor. The room shall have a floor area of
less than 7.00 square meters (80 square feet) and 3.50 square meters
square feet) for each additional machine.
Every projection room shall have at least two doorway separated by not
less than one-third the perimeter of the room, each at least 75
(2 feet, 6 inches) wide and 2.00 meters (6 feet, 7 inches) high. All
to a projection room shall be protected by a self-closing fire assembly
having a three-fourths hour fire-resistive rating. Such doors shall
outward and lead to proper exits as required in this Code and shall not
be equipped with any latch. The maximum width of such door need be no
than 75 centimeters (2 feet, 6 inches).
(d) Ports and
Ports in projection room walls shall be of three kinds: projection
observation ports; and combination ports used for both observation and
for stereopticon, spot, or floodlight machines.
(1) Ports Required.
There shall be provided for each motion picture projector not more than
one projection port, which shall be limited in area to 774 square
(120 square inches), and not more than one observation port, which
be limited in area to 1290 square centimeters (200 square inches).
shall be not more than three combination ports, each of which shall not
exceed 75 centimeters by 60 centimeters (30 inches by 24 inches). Each
port opening shall be completely covered with a pane of glass: Except,
That when acetate (safety) film is used projection ports may be
in size to an area not to exceed 4644 square centimeters (720 square
port and every other opening in projection room walls, including any
inlets but excluding exit doors and exhaust ducts, shall be provided
a shutter of not less than No. 10 U.S. gauge sheet metal or its
large enough to overlap at least 25 millimeters (1 inch) on all sides
such opening. Shutters shall be arranged to slide without binding in
constructed of material equal to the shutters in strength and fire
Each shutter shall be equipped with a 74ºC (165ºF) fusible
which when fused by heat will cause closure of the shutter by gravity.
Shutters of a size greater than 1290 square centimeters (200 square
shall be equipped with a counter-balance. There shall also be a fusible
link located over the upper magazine of each projector, which, upon
will close all the shutters. In addition, there shall be provided
means for manually closing all shutters simultaneously from any
head and from a point within the projection room near each exit door.
on openings not in use shall be kept closed: Except, That shutters may
be omitted when acetate (safety) film only is used.
(1) Inlet. A
inlet from the exterior of the building not less than 928. 8 square
(114 square inches) and protected with wire netting shall be installed
within 50 millimeters (2 inches) of the floor in every projection room,
the source of which shall be remote from other outside vents or flues.
shall be provided by one or more mechanical exhaust systems which shall
draw air from each arc lamp and from one or more points near the
Systems shall exhaust to outdoors either directly or through an
flue used for no other purpose. Exhaust capacity shall be not less than
0.42 cubic meter (15 cubic feet) nor more than 1.40 cubic meters (50
feet) per minute for each are lamp plus 5.60 cubic meters (200 cubic
per minute for the room itself. Systems shall be controlled from within
the enclosure and have pilot lights to indicate operation. The exhaust
system serving the projection room may be extended to cover room
therewith such as rewind rooms. No dampers shall be installed in such
systems. Ventilation of these rooms shall not be connected in any way
or air conditioning system serving other portions of the building.
ducts shall be of incombustible material, and shall either be kept 25
(1 inch) from combustible material or covered with 10 millimeters (1/2
inch) of incombustible heat-insulating material.
(f) Regulation of
All shelves, fixtures, and fixed equipment in a projection room shall
constructed of incombustible materials. All films not in actual use
be stored in metal cabinets having individuals compartments for reels
shall be in generally accepted shipping containers. No solder shall be
used in the construction of such metal cabinets.
Every projection room shall be provided with unenclosed water
SECTION 8.01.15: Lathing,
Plastering, and Installation of Wallboards
installation of lath, plaster, and gypsum wallboards shall conform to
fire-resistive rating requirements and the Type of Construction of the
building and shall be designed in accordance with the legally accepted
principles of engineering.
AND ELECTRICAL REGULATIONSChapter
SECTION 9.01.01: Mechanical
(a) All mechanical
equipment, and installations mentioned in this Code shall conform to
provisions of the Mechanical Code of the Philippines, latest edition,
and promulgated by the Board of Mechanical Engineering Examiners
to Commonwealth Act Numbered 294, as amended.
SECTION 9.02.01: Electrical
(a) All electrical
and installations mentioned in this Code shall conform to the
of the Philippine Electrical Code, latest edition, adopted and
by the Board of Electrical Engineering Examiners pursuant to Republic
No. 184, otherwise known as the Electrical Engineering Law.
AND X-RAY FILMS
SECTION 10.01.01: Storage
(a) In the storage and
of photographic and x-ray nitrocellulose film, automatic sprinklers
be provided in the following case:cralaw:red
films exceed the aggregate of 14.00 cubic meters (500 cubic feet),
should be in generally accepted safety shipping containers for films;
(2) Where shelving
for storage of individual packages not in said safety shipping
and the films exceeds 1.40 cubic meters (50 cubic feet) in capacity; or
(3) Storage not in
accepted safety shipping containers in any fire section equipped with
sprinklers may be permitted up to 14.00 cubic meters (500 cubic feet).
(b) Film negatives in storage
or in process of handling shall be kept in heavy manila envelopes not
12 films to an envelope. Expanding envelopes shall not be used.
(c) Film negatives
be kept in properly insulated vented cabinets, vented storage vaults or
outside storage houses. Not more than 113 kilograms (250 pounds shall
stored in any single cabinet. Where the film stored exceeds 453.5
(1000 pounds), it shall be in vented storage vaults or in a detached
or roof vault. Door openings in vault shall be of four hour
construction and shall be kept close except when in use.
(d) Only incandescent
lights shall be permitted, protected with substantial wire guards or
proof globes, or both. Portable lights on extension cords are
Smoking shall be prohibited and conspicuous no smoking sign posted.
(e) No films shall be
within 60 centimeters (2 feet) seam pipes, chimneys, or other sources
chan robles virtual law
(f) First aid
of types using water or water solutions shall be provided. Discarded
shall be stored and handled in the same manner as other films until
from the premises.
SECTION 10.01.02: Nitrocellulose
Motion Picture Film
(a) Nitrate motion
film shall be stored or handled only in buildings of fire-resistive
Every room where nitrate film is stored or handled in quantities
than 22.5 kilograms (50 pounds), except in motion picture booths or
rooms connected with such booths, shall be equipped with automatic
(b) Buildings used for,
or housing, a nitrate picture film laboratory or studio shall have
sprinklers. A minimum of one sprinkler for every 6.00 square meters (64
square feet) shall be provided.
SECTION 10.01.03: Classes
of Film Exempted
(a) The provisions of
Section do not apply to: film for amateur photographic use in original
packages of "roll" and "film pack" films in quantities of less than
cubic meters (50 cubic feet); safety film (cellulose acetate base);
x-ray film; establishments manufacturing photographic films and their
incidental thereto; and films stored or being used in standard motion
(b) Safety photographic
X-ray films (cellulose acetate base) may be identified by the marking
the edge of the film.
SECTION 10.01.04: Sprinklers
(a) Unless otherwise
in this Code, all sprinklers when so required shall be of a type,
and method of installations in accordance with generally accepted
is a structural unit, the integral parts of which have been built up or
assembled prior to incorporation in the building.
(b) Special tests based
on internationally recognized and accepted engineering practices shall
be required on assemblies to determine heir structural appropriateness,
durability, soundness, and weather and fire resistance. Materials and
assembly shall comply with the latest generally accepted engineering
architectural specifications and standards.
(c) Every device or
designed to connect prefabricated assemblies shall be capable of
the strength of the different members as a homogenous or monolithic
except in the case of members forming part of a structural frame as
in this Code. Anchorages and connections between members and the
elements of the structure or walls shall be capable of withstanding all
probable external and internal forces or other conditions for a
sound construction. In structural design, proper allowances shall be
for any material to be displaced or removed for the installations of
conduits, or others.
(d) Placement of
assemblies shall be inspected to determined compliance with this Code.
SECTION 10.03.01: General
Approved plastic materials shall be those which have a flame-spread
of 225 or less and a smoke density not greater than that obtained from
the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions when tested in
with generally recognized and accepted engineering practices for
burning characteristics of building materials in the way intended for
The products of combustion shall be no more toxic than the burning of
wood under similar conditions.
SECTION 10.03.02: Installation
All plastic materials and their assemblies shall be of adequate
and durability to withstand the prescribed design loads. Sufficient and
substantial technical data shall be submitted to establish stresses,
unsupported spans, and such other information as may be deemed
for the various thickness and forms used.
shall be adequate to withstand design loads and internal and external
required of the assembly, Proper allowances shall be made for expansion
and contraction of plastic materials in conjunction with other
with which it assembled or integrated.
SECTION 10.03.03: Glazing
(a) Doors, sash and
openings in exterior walls of all building except Types IV and V
may be glazed or equipped with approved plastic: Provided, That:cralaw:red
(1) The wall
glazing is installed is so located that openings are not required to be
(2) Except for Type I
the location, size, and spacing of such glazed openings do not exceed
values set by generally recognized and accepted principles of
(3) Plastics used in
openings of Type II buildings shall be of materials appropriate to use
according to flame-spread characteristics and the location, size and
of the openings do not exceed the values set forth by generally
principles of engineering.
SECTION 10.03.04: Skylights
plastics may be used in skylights installed on roofs Types I, II, or
buildings and all buildings equipped with an approved automatic
system in Groups A, B, C, E, F, J, H-3, an H-4 Occupancies: Except,
be used in any type of construction or occupancy as a fire venting
when approved by the Building Official.
(2) Plastics may be
in approved skylights in Type I one-hour constructions which are
30 centimeters (12 inches) or more above the lower plane of the
The walls of the skylight well shall be no less fire-resistive than the
(3) Where a
ceiling is not required in one-story buildings, approved plastics may
used in skylights.
(1) Except in Group A
no skylight shall be installed within 3.00 meters (10 feet) of a
(2) The edges of
skylights shall be properly flashed.
(3) Plastic skylights
be separated from each other by at least 2.50 meters (feet, 4 inches)
and 3.00 meters (10 feet) along the slope of the roof.
(c) Allowable Areas.
The area of individual plastic skylights shall not exceed 10.00 square
meters (107 square feet). The total aggregate area of plastics used in
skylights, monitors, and sawtooth glazing shall not exceed 20 per cent
of the floor area of the room or occupancy sheltered.
Plastic skylights in roofs having a slope of less than 1 in 3 shall
have a 10 centimeter (4-inch) high curb. The curb may be omitted where
a wire screen not smaller the No. 12 U.S. gauge with 25-millimeter
mesh is provided immediately below the skylight. The screen shall be
mounted below the skylight.
SECTION 10.03.05: Light-Transmitting
Panels in Monitors and Sawtooth Roofs
a fire-resistive rating is not required for the roof structure, and in
all buildings provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing
approved plastics may be used with or without sash as the
medium in monitors and sawtooth roofs: Except, That plastics used in
or sawtooth roofs of Type II buildings shall be of materials
to use according to flame-spread characteristics.
(b) Allowable Areas.
The area of individual plastic glazing used in monitors and sawtooth
shall not exceed 15.00 square meters (150 square feet). The total
area of plastics used in skylights, monitors, and sawtooth glazing
not exceed 20 per cent of the floor area of the room or occupancy
The areas of such plastic panels shall be separated from each other by
a section incombustible materials or by a section of the roofing
of the structure not less than 1.50 meters (5 feet) in length. The
edge of the plastic material shall be at least 15 centimeters (6
above the surface of the adjoining roof surface.
SECTION 10.03.06: Plastic
Light Diffusers in Ceilings
(a) General. Ceiling
light diffusers having an area greater than 10 per cent of any 10.00
meters (100 square feet) of room area shall be approved plastics
to the requirements specified in this Code.
Plastic light diffusers shall be installed in such a manner that they
not readily become detached when subjected to room temperature of
(300ºF) for 25 minutes, except, for plastic light diffusers which
are installed in the first floor areas of Group C Occupancies having
directly to the exterior of the building; and plastic light diffusers
are located between an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system and
the areas to be protected other than public corridors or Groups A, B,
D, E, G, H, and I Occupancies if tests in accordance with generally
and recognized principles of engineering have established that such
will not interfere with the efficient operation of such automatic
SECTION 10.03.07: Partitions
(a) Where partitions
not required to be of fire-resistive or incombustible construction,
plastics conforming to the requirements specified in this Code may be
SECTION 10.03.08: Exterior
veneer may be of approved plastic materials and shall conform to the
of this Section.
veneer may be attached to exterior walls above the first story of
located outside of highly restrictive Fire Zones: Provided, further,
the height of veneer is not in excess of 10.50 meters (35 feet) above
adjacent grade elevation.
(c) Area. Section
of plastic veneer shall not exceed 15.00 square meters (150 square
in area: Except, That in less restrictive Fire Zones the area may be
by 50 per cent.
of plastic veneer shall be separated by a minimum of 1.20 meters (4
vertically and 60 centimeters (2 feet) horizontally.
SECTION 10.03.09: Awnings
(a) Plastics of
appropriate to use according to flame-spread characteristics may be
in awnings and canopies, and all such awnings and canopies shall be
in accordance with provisions governing projections and appendages
in this Code.
(b) Approved plastics
be used in awnings where untreated canvas is permitted.
(c) Approved plastics
be used in lieu of plain glass in greenhouse in less restrictive Fire
METAL SPRAY BOOTHS SECTION
spray booths shall be constructed of steel of not less than No. 18 U.S.
gauge in thickness and shall be designed in accordance with this Code.
(b) Area. The
of a paint spray booth shall not exceed 150 square meters (1500 square
feet) nor 10 per cent of the basic area permitted for the major use of
the building according to the occupancy group.
The floor shall be constructed of incombustible material.
Paint spray booths shall be designed to permit the free passage of
air from all parts of the interior and all interior surfaces shall be
and continuous without outstanding edges.
SECTION 10.04.02: Fire
(a) Every spray booth
an open front elevation larger than 0.90 meter (9 square feet) and
is not equipped with doors, shall have a fire curtain or metal
not less than 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep installed that upper outer
edge of the booth opening.
SECTION 10.04.03: Light
(a) Paint spray booths
illuminated through hammered wire or heat-treated glass panels. The
panels shall be located in such a manner as to reduce the hazard of
caused by paint spray deposit.
SECTION 10.04.04: Ventilation
ventilation shall be provided direct to the exterior of the building.
mechanical exhaust system shall be designed to move the air through any
portion of the paint spray area at the rate of not less than 30.00
meters (100 linear feet) per minute. The blades of exhaust fan shall be
constructed of nonferous materials and shall be mounted in such a
as to prevent contact with the exhaust duct. The motor shall not be
in the spray booth or the duct system and belts shall be enclosed where
they enter the booth or duct system.
(b) Exhaust Ducts.
Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel having a thickness not less
than the values set by generally recognized and accepted principles of
engineering. The discharge paint for ducts in a paint spray booth shall
be not less than 1.80 meters (6 feet) from adjoining combustible
nor less than 7.50 meters (25 feet) from adjoining exterior wall
Except, That the discharge point for exhaust ducts is not regulated in
a water-wash spray booth.
AND GLAZING SECTION
(a) This Chapter shall
to exterior glass and glazing in all occupancies except Groups A, B,
J Occupancies not over three stories in height, and to interior and
glass and glazing in all occupancies subject to human impact as
in this Chapter.
(b) Standards for
shall conform to this Chapter and to generally recognized and accepted
principles of engineering on glass dimensional tolerance, breaking
levels, and design (safety) factors.
(c) Each light shall
the manufacturer's label designating the type and thickness of glass.
light with special performance characteristics such as laminated,
fully tempered or insulated shall bear the manufacturer's
showing the special characteristic and thickness by etching or other
identification that shall be visible after the glass is glazed.
SECTION 10.05.02: Area
(a) Exterior glass and
shall be capable of safety withstanding the loads set forth by
recognized and accepted principles of engineering on wind pressures for
various height zones above ground acting inward or outward. The area of
individual lights shall not be more than those set by generally
and acceptable principles of engineering on the maximum allowable area
of glass according to the wind load multiplied by the appropriate
SECTION 10.05.03: Glazing
(a) Glass firmly
on all four edges shall be glazed with a minimum laps and edge
in accordance with generally accepted and recognized principles of
for minimum glazing requirements: Provided, That glass edge
in fixed openings shall be not less than what is required for wind and
earthquake drift. For glass not firmly supported on all four edges,
shall be submitted for approval. Glass supports shall be considered
when deflection of the support at design load does not exceed 1/175th
SECTION 10.05.04: Windows
(a) Regular plate,
or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall not be
than nominal 5.6 millimeters (7/32 inch) and no longer than 1.20 meters
(4 feet) Exposed glass edged shall be smooth.
chan robles virtual law
SECTION 10.05.05: Impact
(a) Frameless glass,
glass in doors, fixed glass panels, and similar glazed openings which
be subject to accidental human impact shall conform with generally
and accepted principles of engineering on impact loads of glass:
in the following cases:cralaw:red
(1) Bath tub
enclosures shall be constructed from approved shatter-resistant
such as: wire reinforced glass not less than 5-6-millimeter (7/32-inch)
thickness; fully tempered glass not less than 4.8-millimeter
thickness; or laminated safety glass of not less than 6.4-millimeter
(2) Glass lights
not less than 45 centimeters (18 inches) above the adjacent finished
or walking surface.
(3) Glass lights when
least dimension is no greater than 45 centimeters (18 inches).
(4) Glass lights 0.55
meter (16 square feet) or less in area.
(a) No signs or
shall be erected in such a manner as to confuse or obstruct the view or
interpretation of any official traffic sign signal or device.
(b) No signboards shall
be constructed as to unduly obstruct the natural view of the landscape,
distract or obstruct the view of the public as to constitute a traffic
hazard, or otherwise defile, debase, or offend the aesthetic and
values and traditions of the Filipino people.
SECTION 10.06.02: Maintenance
(a) All signs, together
with all of their supports, braces, guys and anchors, shall be kept in
repair and in proper state of preservation. The display surfaces of all
signs shall be kept neatly painted or posted at all times.
SECTION 10.06.03: Design
(a) General. Signs
and signs structures shall be designed and constructed to resist all
and seismic forces. All bracing systems shall be designed and
to transfer lateral forces to the foundations. For signs on buildings
dead and lateral loads shall be transmitted through the structural
of the building to the ground in such manner as not to overstress any
the elements thereof. The overturning moment produced from lateral
shall, in no case, exceed two-thirds of the dead-load resisting moment.
Uplift due to overturning shall be adequately resisted by proper
to the ground or to the structural frame of the building. The weight of
earth superimposed over footings may be used in determining the
resisting moment. Such earth shall be carefully placed and thoroughly
SECTION 10.06.04: Support
supports for all signs or signs structures shall be placed in or upon
property and shall be securely built, constructed, and erected in
with the requirements of this Code.
of construction for signs and sign structures shall be of the quality
grade as specified in this Code.
Combustible Materials. All signs and sign structures erected in
restrictive Fire Zones shall have structural members of incombustible
Ground signs may be constructed of any material meeting the
of this Code. Combination signs, roof signs, walls signs, projecting
and signs on marquees shall be constructed of incombustible materials.
No combustible materials other than approved plastics shall be used in
the construction of electric signs.
Nonstructural trim and portable display surface may be of wood, metal,
approved plastics, or any combination thereof.
supporting unbraced signs shall be so proportioned that the bearing
imposed on the soil in either direction, horizontal or vertical, shall
not exceed the safe values. Braced ground signs shall be anchored to
the specified wind or seismic load in any direction. Anchors and
shall be designed for safe bearing loads on the soil and for an
resistance to pull-out amounting to a force twenty five percent (25)
than the required resistance to overturning. Anchors and supports shall
penetrate to a sufficient depth below ground. Portable ground signs
by frames or posts rigidly attached to the base shall be so
that the weight and size of the base will be adequate to resist the
pressure. Signs attached to masonry, concrete, or steel shall be safely
and securely fastened thereto by means of metal anchors, bolts, or
expansion screws of sufficient size and anchorage to support safely the
loads applied. No wooden blocks or plugs or anchors with wood used in
with screws or nails shall be considered proper anchorage, except in
case of signs attached to wood framing. No anchor or support of any
shall be connected to, or supported by, an unbraced parapet wall,
such wall is designed in accordance with the requirements for parapet
Display surfaces in all types of signs may be made of metal, glass, or
SECTION 10.06.05: Projection
(a) Clearance from
Voltage Power Lines. Signs shall be located not less than 1.80
(6 feet) horizontally or 3.60 meters (12 feet) vertically from overhead
electrical conductors which are energized in excess of 750 volts. The
"overhead conductor" as used in this Section means any
conductor, either bare or insulated, installed above the ground except
such conductors as are enclosed in an iron pipes or other material
of equal strength.
(b) Clearance from
Escapes, Exits, or Standpipes. No sign or signs structure shall be
erected in such a manner that any portion of its surface or supports
interfere in any way with the free use of any fire escape, exit, or
(c) Obstruction of
No sign shall obstruct any opening to such an extent that light or
is reduced to a point below that required by this Code. Signs erected
1.50 meters (5 feet) of an exterior wall in which there are openings
the area of the sign shall be constructed of incombustible material or
chan robles virtual law
(d) Projection Over
No sign or sign structures shall project into any public alley below a
height of 4.25 meters (14 feet) above grade nor project more than 30
(12 inches) where the sign structure is located 4.25 meters (14 feet)
4.85 meters (16 feet) above grade. The sign or sign structure may
not more than 0.90 meter (3 feet) into the public alley where the sign
or sign structure is located more than 4.85 meters (16 feet) above
approval: August 26, 1972.
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