ChanRobles Virtual law Library

This web page features the full text of the
Rules to Implement the Labor Code.

Quick Index

Preliminary Provisions
Book I
Book II
Human Resources Development Program
Book III
Conditions of Employment
Book IV
Health, Safety and Social Welfare Benefits
Book V
Labor Relations
Book VI
Post Employment
Book VII
Final Provisions



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National Manpower Development Program

Definition of Terms

SECTION 1. Definition of terms. —

(a) "Council" refers to National Manpower and Youth Council.cralaw:red

(b) "Human resources development" refers to the process by which the actual and potential labor force is made to systematically acquire greater knowledge, skills or capabilities for the nation's sustained economic and social growth.cralaw:red

(c) "Manpower" is that portion of the population which has actual or potential capability to contribute to the production of goods and services.cralaw:red

(d) "National Manpower Plan" refers to the plan formulated by the Council on the systematic determination of manpower requirements and supply of the sectors of the economy over a future period of time. It shall embody policies and strategies on how human resources can be improved in quality and productivity, how they can be efficiently allocated to various employments, with a view to accelerating the attainment of the country's overall economic and social objectives.cralaw:red

(e) "Training" is the systematic development of the attitude/knowledge/skill/behavior pattern required for the adequate performance of a given job or task.cralaw:red

(f) "Training in vocation" refers to a range of activities aimed at providing the skills, knowledge, and attitudes required for employment in a particular occupation, group, group of related occupations or functions in a field of economic activity.cralaw:red

(g) "Basic skills training" refers to the first stage of the learning process of a vocational character for a given task, job, occupation or group of occupations, aimed at developing the fundamental attitude/knowledge/ skill/behavior pattern to specified standards. This covers any of the following:

(1) "Pre-entry training" is a basic skills training for immediate entry into the working environment.

(2) "Accelerated training" is basic skills training of a short-term nature for jobs with a defined level of qualifications. This usually refers to a rapid paced, condensed vocational training to fill immediate manpower needs.

(h) "Further training" refers to that part of vocational training which follows basic training, usually within the framework of a training program or scheme, for recognized qualifications. This covers any or all of the following:

(1) Upgrading — training for supplementary skills and knowledge in order to increase the versatility and occupational mobility of a worker or to improve his standard of performance.

(2) Updating — training to improve the performance of people in their occupation in respect to modern developments; new materials, tools, processes.

(3) Refresher — process of further training in work currently performed in order to improve job performance. This also refers to training to regain skills and knowledge which may have been partly forgotten as a result of length interruptions in the performance of an occupation.

(4) Specialization — training to consolidate, deepen and broaden skills and knowledge for a particular task, function or aspect of a worker's occupation.

(5) Retraining for the acquisition of skills and knowledge required in an occupation other than the one for which the person originally trained.

(i) "Entrepreneurship training" refers to the training schemes to develop persons for self-employment or for organizing, financing and/or managing an enterprise.

(j) "Cooperative settlement training" refers to the training of a group of young people or farmer families in modern methods in agriculture and cooperative living and subsequently to organize and locate them in cooperative settlement.cralaw:red

(k) "Instructor training" is aimed at developing capacities of persons for imparting attitudes, knowledge, skills and behavior patterns, required for specific jobs, tasks, occupations or group of related occupations.cralaw:red

(l) "Vocational preparation training" refers to a range of training activities primarily aimed at the youth and covering any or all of the following:

(1) First introduction to work of a vocational character covering a range of occupational activities;

(2) Preparing the youth for choosing an occupation or a line of training;

(3) Acquainting the youth with different materials, tools, machines, procedures and elementary theoretical knowledge relevant to a group of occupations;

(4) Providing the youth with working methods and standards expected at work; and

(5) Giving the youth basic knowledge about contributions which they may be able to make to the economic and social development of the country.

(m) "Special project training" refers to an organized activity or sets of activities in aid of human resources development which do not fall squarely under any of the previously described types of activities.

(n) "Skills standards" refers to a level or graduated levels of proficiency generally accepted by industry in specific jobs, tasks, trades or occupations.cralaw:red

(o) "Trade" refers to any industrial craft or artisan occupation which is officially or traditionally recognized as requiring special qualifications which can only be acquired through lengthy training, experience, and practical and theoretical instruction.cralaw:red

(p) "Trade test" refers to examination or test to determine whether a person meets the standards of a particular trade.cralaw:red

(q) "Employment" refers to remunerative work either for an employer or self-employment.cralaw:red

(r) "Occupation" refers to the collection of jobs which is sufficiently similar with regard to their main task to be grouped together under a common title.cralaw:red

(s) "Job" refers to all the tasks carried out by a particular person in the completion of his prescribed duties.cralaw:red

(t) "Task" refers to a major element of work or combination of elements by means of which a specific result is achieved.

Functions and Areas of Responsibility

SECTION 1. Functions of the Council. — The Council shall take charge of the training and development of human resources, institutions, and formulate such integrated plans, policies, programs, and projects that will ensure efficient and proper allocation, accelerated development and optimum utilization of the nation's manpower, and thereby promote employment and accelerate economic and social growth.cralaw:red

SECTION 2. National manpower plan. — The Council shall:

(a) Formulate a long term plan which shall be the controlling plan for the development of manpower resources for the entire country;

(b) Carry out the approved manpower plan, and promulgate policies and standards for manpower and youth development calculated to develop and upgrade occupational skills of the labor force.

SECTION 3. Administration of training programs. — To integrate national manpower development efforts, the Council shall coordinate all manpower training schemes, except apprenticeship and learnership programs, particularly those having to do with the setting of skills standards. The Council may regulate existing manpower training programs of the government and the private sector to make them conform with national development programs, and for this purpose all manpower training programs shall be reported to the Council.

SECTION 4. Regional manpower development offices. — The Council shall establish regional manpower development offices for the effective supervision, coordination and integration of manpower training centers, programs and projects, and all human resources development efforts in their respective jurisdictions.cralaw:red

SECTION 5. Industry boards. — The Council shall set up industry boards to assist in the establishment of manpower development schemes, trade and skills standards and such other functions as will provide direct participation of employers and workers in the fulfillment of Council objectives.cralaw:red

SECTION 6. Incentive scheme. — The Council shall establish an incentive scheme which shall provide additional tax deduction to persons or enterprises undertaking development programs, other than apprenticeship, as approved by the Council.cralaw:red

SECTION 7. Research. — The Council shall conduct continuous assessment and study of the nature, behavior and use of the country's stock of human resources and study areas directly or indirectly related to human resources development. This it shall do by way of:

(a) Engaging directly in studies, researches and surveys; and

(b) Engaging the services of duly recognized and competent individuals, groups of individuals, institutions, schools and universities or research outfits, through contracts, grants or any appropriate arrangement.

In any case, documents, materials or whatever output or results from the activities above shall form part of the property of the Council.

SECTION 8. Evaluation. — The Council shall evaluate the output of human resources development programs to gear educational and training objectives to requirements of the annual investment priorities plan and maximum economic growth.cralaw:red

SECTION 9. Training assistance. — The Council shall provide training assistance to any employer or organization upon approval of an appropriate project proposal.cralaw:red

SECTION 10. Employment promotion schemes. — The Council shall adopt employment promotion schemes to channel unemployed youth to meet manpower shortages or other occupations.cralaw:red

SECTION 11. Director-General authorized to enter into agreements. — The Director-General, acting on behalf of the Council, shall enter into agreements necessary to implement manpower programs, and act upon nominations of Philippine citizens for training in other countries.cralaw:red

SECTION 12. Coordination of employment service. — The Council shall coordinate employment service activities with the Bureau of Employment Services particularly in the measurement of unemployment and under-employment, the conduct of local manpower resources surveys and occupational studies including an inventory of the labor force, and the establishment as well as maintenance without charge of a national register of technicians and other skilled manpower who have successfully completed training programs under the Council, including its periodic publication, and the maintenance of an adequate and up-to-date system of employment information.cralaw:red

SECTION 13. National standards of trade skills. — The Council shall establish and implement a national standards of trade skills, testing and certification.cralaw:red

SECTION 14. Administration of technical assistance programs. — The Council shall exercise authority, administration, and jurisdiction over ongoing technical assistance programs and grants-in-aids for manpower and youth development, both local and foreign, through a system that shall be formulated by the Council.cralaw:red

SECTION 15. Annual report to the President. — The Council shall report annually to the President on the progress of the Manpower Plan.

Training and Development

SECTION 1. Responsibility of the NMYC for training and development. — The NMYC shall provide, through its Secretariat, instructor training, entrepreneurship development, training in vocations, trades and other fields of employment, and assist any employer or organization in developing training schemes under such rules and regulations as the Council may establish for this purpose.cralaw:red

SECTION 2. Integration of training programs. — The Council shall coordinate all manpower training schemes, apprenticeship and learnership programs, particularly the setting of skills standards. It may regulate existing manpower training programs of the government and the private sector to make them conform with the national development programs.cralaw:red

SECTION 3. Obligation to report. — All manpower training programs, whether in the government or in the private sector shall be reported to the Council in a form to be prescribed by it.cralaw:red

SECTION 4. Application for NMYC assistance. — Any person or entity, private or public, that is engaged or desires to engage in training may request the NMYC for assistance by filing with its Director-General an appropriate project proposal.cralaw:red

SECTION 5. Requirements of training program proposal. — The training program proposal shall be submitted in the form prescribed by the NMYC. The proposal shall include, among others the following:

(a) Objectives of training;

(b) Type of training, whether for basic skills training, further training, instructor training, cooperative settlement training, entrepreneurship training, vocational preparation training, and special projects training;

(c) Training schedules and program of activities;

(d) Educational background of the trainee;

(e) Course content or syllabus;

(f) Personnel requirements (training staff);

(g) Estimate of supplies and materials required;

(h) Training facilities and equipment;

(i) Cost estimates and budgetary allocation.

SECTION 6. Actions on application for training assistance. — The Director-General shall approve or disapprove the application within ninety (90) calendar days from submission thereof.

SECTION 7. Criteria for approval. — The applicant shall qualify for assistance if he can establish to the satisfaction of the Director-General that the project for which training assistance is being sought falls under NMYC priorities, is feasible, is labor-intensive, has the built-in-capacity for job creation and placement, and that the applicant is in a position to comply with the minimum requirements set by NMYC on training facilities, training staff, course syllabus and training methodology.cralaw:red

SECTION 8. Allowable training expenses. — The training assistance of NMYC shall be in the form of personal services, travelling expenses, equipment, training tools, training supplies and materials, and a reasonable amount for contingencies.cralaw:red

SECTION 9. Termination of training project. — The Director-General may terminate any training program or project should evaluation prove that the training center/project has not complied with any of the requirements of the approved project proposal or should there be violation of any of the provisions of the relevant Memorandum Agreement.cralaw:red

SECTION 10. Incentive scheme. — An additional deduction from taxable income of one-half of the value of labor training expenses incurred for developing or upgrading the productivity and efficiency of unskilled labor or for management development programs shall be granted to the person or enterprise concerned, provided such training program is approved by the Council and provided further that such deduction shall not exceed 10 percent of direct labor wage.cralaw:red

There shall be a review of the said scheme two years after its implementation.cralaw:red

SECTION 11. Coverage of the incentive scheme. — Subject to the limitations prescribed by law and these Rules, training expenses incurred in connection with organized manpower training programs may be deducted from the taxable income of the person or enterprise concerned, provided such training programs shall have been submitted to the NMYC for evaluation and approval except those covered by the apprenticeship program. Training programs undertaken by training institutions and/or associations operating for profit shall not qualify under this incentive scheme.

Industry Boards

SECTION 1. NMYC to establish industry boards. — The Council shall establish industry boards to assist in the establishment of manpower development schemes, trades and skills standards and such other functions as will provide direct participation of employers and workers in the fulfillment of the Council's objectives in accordance with the guidelines to be established by the Council in consultation with the National Economic and Development Authority.cralaw:red

The maintenance and operation of the Industry Boards shall be financed through a funding scheme under such rates of fees and manner of collection and disbursement as may be determined by the Council.cralaw:red

SECTION 2. Preparatory activities. — In setting up such industry boards as may be necessary, the NMYC shall:

(a) Establish in consultation with industry and appropriate government agencies an Industry Classification Scheme for the whole economy;

(b) Determine priority industries where Industry Boards should be set up; and

(c) Establish criteria for determining to which industry board a certain firm or establishment properly belongs.

SECTION 3. Powers of the NMYC over the industry boards. — The NMYC shall have the power and authority:

(a) To determine the composition of the industry boards;

(b) To establish the scope of authority, functions and relationships of the boards vis-a-vis other agencies and organizations; and

(c) To determine the mode of financing for the boards.

National Skills Standards

SECTION 1. Establishment of skills standards. — There shall be national skills standards for industry trades to be established by the Council in consultation with employers' and workers' organizations and appropriate government authorities. The Council shall thereafter administer the national skills standards.cralaw:red

SECTION 2. Objectives. — (a) To improve the level of skills of workers in industry;

(b) To assist in the development of human resources by providing a precise means of assessing the skilled manpower of the country, both qualitatively and quantitatively; and

(c) To improve industrial relations by providing common ground for negotiations between employers and workers relating to terms and conditions of skilled workers.cralaw:red

SECTION 3. Composition. — There shall be set up a National Committee on Trade Skills Standards, Testing and Certification, composed of the Director-General as Chairman, the Director of the National Manpower Skills Center, the Director of the Bureau of Apprenticeship, and one representative each from industrial employers, industrial workers, Department of Education, Culture and Sports, Department of Trade and Industry, organizations of mechanical engineers, electrical/electronic engineers, and civil engineers.cralaw:red

SECTION 4. Functions. — The National Committee on Trade Skills Standards, Testing and Certification shall have the following functions and responsibilities:

(a) To propose for the approval of the Council national trade skills standards for various trades and occupations;

(b) To approve trade tests appropriate to each national trade skill standards;

(c) To appoint trade committees of experts to advise the National Committee on the content of national trade skills standards and the form of the trade tests; and

(d) To advise generally on the implementation of the national trade skills standards, testing and certification program.

SECTION 5. Trade committees. — There shall be created trade committees to be composed of experts from government, employers, and employees' sectors, to advise the National Committee on the content of the standards and the appropriate trade tests.

SECTION 6. Trade testing board. — Trade testing and certification shall be carried out by a Trade Testing Board composed of three persons representing government, employers and workers to be chosen by the National Committee.

Apprenticeship Training and Employment of Special Workers

SECTION 1. Objectives. — The promotion, development, and maintenance of apprenticeship programs shall have the following objectives:

(a) To meet the needs of the economy for training manpower in the widest possible range of employment;

(b) To establish a national apprenticeship program through the participation of employers, workers, government, civic and other groups; and

(c) To establish apprenticeship standards for the protection of apprentices and upgrading of skills.

SECTION 2. Definition of terms. —

(a) "Apprenticeship" means any training on the job supplemented by related theoretical instructions involving apprenticeable occupations and trades as may be approved by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.

(b) "Apprentice" is a worker who is covered by a written apprenticeship agreement with an employer.

(c) "Apprenticeship agreement" is a written employment contract wherein the employer binds himself to train the apprentice and the latter in turn agrees to work for the employer.

(d) "Apprenticeable occupation" means any trade, form of employment or occupation approved for apprenticeship by the Secretary of Labor and Employment, which requires for proficiency more than three months of practical training on the job supplemented by related theoretical instructions.

(e) "Apprenticeship standards" means the written implementing plans and conditions of an apprenticeship program.

(f) "Bureau" means the Bureau of Apprenticeship.

(g) "Employer" means the individual firm or any other entity qualified to hire apprentice under the Code.

(h) "On the job training" is the practical work experience through actual participation in productive activities given to or acquired by an apprentice.

(i) "Related theoretical instructions" means technical information based on apprenticeship standards approved by the Bureau designed to provide the apprentice theoretical competence in his trade.

(j) "Highly Technical Industries" means trade, business, enterprise, industry, or other activity, which is engaged in the application of advanced technology.

SECTION 3. Voluntary nature of apprenticeship program. — The organization of apprenticeship program shall be primarily a voluntary undertaking of employers, except as otherwise provided.

SECTION 4. Venue of on-the-job training. — The practical aspect of on-the-job training of apprentices may be undertaken:

(a) In the plant, shop or premises of the employer or firm concerned if the apprenticeship program is organized by an individual employer or firm;

(b) In the premises of one or several firms designated for the purpose by the organizer of the program if such organizer is an association of employers, civic group and the like; and

(c) In a Department of Labor and Employment Training Center or other public training institutions with which the Bureau has made appropriate arrangements.

SECTION 5. On-the-job training to be explicitly described. — The manner in which practical or on-the-job training shall be provided must be specifically described in the apprenticeship standards of a particular program.

SECTION 6. Recognition of apprenticeship programs. — To enjoy the benefits which the Bureau or other government agencies may extend to duly recognized apprenticeship programs, an employer shall submit in quadruplicate to the Training Section of the appropriate Apprenticeship Division of the appropriate Regional Office the apprenticeship standards of the proposed program prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the Bureau.cralaw:red

If the apprenticeship standards are found in order, a certificate of recognition shall be issued by the Apprenticeship Division concerned within five (5) days from receipt thereof.cralaw:red

SECTION 7. Benefits accruing to recognition. — An entity with a recognized apprenticeship program shall be entitled to technical and other assistance from the Bureau and other government agencies and to the corresponding training-expense deduction from its income tax. The rate of such tax deduction incentive and the procedure of availment thereof are provided in Section 42 of this Rule.cralaw:red

SECTION 8. Trades to be included in apprenticeship programs. — Only trades and occupations declared apprenticeable by the Secretary of Labor and Employment may be included in apprenticeship programs.cralaw:red

SECTION 9. Who may establish programs. — Any entity, whether or not organized for profit may establish or sponsor apprenticeship programs and employ apprentices.cralaw:red

SECTION 10. Assistance by non-profit entities. — In lieu of organizing programs, non-profit entities may:

(a) Execute an agreement with firms of their choice with on-going apprenticeship programs, directly or through the Department of Labor and Employment, assuming responsibility for training deserving apprentices selected by an employer who shall pay the apprentices;

(b) Give financial and other contributions for the promotion of apprenticeship programs; or

(c) Provide other forms of assistance.

Apprentices who train under such programs shall be properly identified in apprenticeship agreements with the employer. However, responsibility for compliance with employees' compensation, social security, medicare and other labor laws shall remain with the employer who benefits from the productive efforts of the apprentices.

SECTION 11. Qualifications of apprentices. — To qualify as apprentice, an applicant shall:

(a) Be at least fifteen years of age; provided those who are at least fifteen years of age but less than eighteen may be eligible for apprenticeship only in non-hazardous occupations;

(b) Be physically fit for the occupation in which he desires to be trained;

(c) Possess vocational aptitude and capacity for the particular occupation as established through appropriate tests; and

(d) Possess the ability to comprehend and follow oral and written instructions.

Trade and industry associations may, however, recommend to the Secretary of Labor and Employment appropriate educational qualifications for apprentices in certain occupations. Such qualifications, if approved, shall be the educational requirements for apprenticeship in such occupations unless waived by an employer in favor of an applicant who has demonstrated exceptional ability. A certification explaining briefly the ground for such waiver, and signed by the person in charge of the program, shall be attached to the apprenticeship agreement of the applicant concerned.

SECTION 12. Aptitude tests. — An employer who has a recognized apprenticeship program shall provide aptitude tests to apprentice-applicants. However, if the employer does not have adequate facilities, the Department of Labor and Employment may provide the service free of charge.cralaw:red

SECTION 13. Physical fitness. — Total physical fitness need not be required of an apprentice-applicant unless it is essential to the expeditious and effective learning of the occupation. Only physical defects which constitute real impediments to effective performance as determined by the plant apprenticeship committee may disqualify an applicant.cralaw:red

SECTION 14. Free physical examination. — Physical examination of apprentice-applicant preparatory to employment shall be provided free of charge by the Department of Health or any government hospital. If this is not feasible, the firm or entity screening the applicant shall extend such service free of charge.cralaw:red

Any entity with an apprenticeship program may elect to assume the responsibility for physical examination provided its facilities are adequate and all expenses are borne exclusively by it.cralaw:red

SECTION 15. Apprenticeable trades. — The Bureau shall evaluate crafts and operative, technical, nautical, commercial, clerical, technological, supervisory, service and managerial activities which may be declared apprenticeable by the Secretary of Labor and Employment and shall have exclusive jurisdiction to formulate model national apprenticeship standards therefor.cralaw:red

SECTION 16. Model standards. — Model apprenticeship standards to be set by the Bureau shall include the following:

(a) Those affecting employment of apprentices under different occupational conditions;

(b) Those involving theoretical and proficiency tests for apprentices during their training;

(c) Areas and duration of work and study covered by on-the-job training and theoretical instructions of apprenticeable trades and occupations; and

(d) Those referring to the qualifications of trainers of apprentices.

SECTION 17. Participation in standards setting. — The Bureau may request any legitimate worker's and employer's organizations, civic and professional groups, and other entities whether public or private, to assist in the formulation of national apprenticeship standards.

SECTION 18. Contents of agreement. — Every apprenticeship agreement shall include the following:

(a) The full names and addresses of the contracting parties;

(b) Date of birth of the apprentice;

(c) Name of the trade, occupation or job in which the apprentice will be trained and the dates on which such training will begin and will approximately end;

(d) The approximate number of hours of on-the-job training as well as of supplementary theoretical instructions which the apprentice shall undergo during his training;

(e) A schedule of the work processes of the trade/occupation in which the apprentice shall be trained and the approximate time to be spent on the job in each process;

(f) The graduated scale of wages to be paid the apprentice;

(g) The probationary period of the apprentice during which either party may summarily terminate their agreement; and

(h) A clause that if the employer is unable to fulfill his training obligation, he may transfer the agreement, with the consent of the apprentice, to any other employer who is willing to assume such obligation.

SECTION 19. Apprenticeship period. — The period of apprenticeship shall not exceed six (6) months.

(a) Four hundred (400) hours or two (2) months for trades or occupations which normally require a year or more for proficiency; and

(b) Two hundred (200) hours or one (1) month for occupations and jobs which require more than three months but less than one year for proficiency.

At least five (5) working days before the actual date of termination, the party terminating shall serve a written notice on the other, stating the reason for such decision and a copy of said notice shall be furnished the Apprenticeship Division concerned.

SECTION 20. Hours of work. — Hours of work of the apprentice shall not exceed the maximum number of hours of work prescribed by law, if any, for a worker of his age and sex. Time spent in related theoretical instructions shall be considered as hours of work and shall be reckoned jointly with on-the-job training time in computing in the agreement the appropriate periods for giving wage increases to the apprentice.cralaw:red

An apprentice not otherwise barred by law from working eight hours a day may be requested by his employer to work overtime and paid accordingly, provided there are no available regular workers to do the job, and the overtime work thus rendered is duly credited toward his training time.cralaw:red

SECTION 21. Previous training or experience. — A prospective apprentice who has completed or otherwise attended a vocational course in a duly recognized trade or vocational school or training center or who has had previous experience in the trade or occupation in which he desires to be apprenticed shall be given due credit therefor.cralaw:red

Both practical and theoretical knowledge shall be evaluated and the credit shall appear in the apprenticeship agreement which shall have the effect of shortening the training and servicing as a basis for promoting him to a higher wage level. Such credit shall be expressed in terms of hours.cralaw:red

SECTION 22. Parties to agreement. — Every apprenticeship agreement shall be signed by the employer or his duly authorized representative and by the apprentice.cralaw:red

An apprenticeship agreement with a minor shall be signed in his behalf by his parent or guardian, or if the latter is not available, by an authorized representative of the Department of Labor and Employment.cralaw:red

SECTION 23. Bureau and Apprenticeship Division of Regional Office concerned to be furnished copy of agreement. — The employer shall furnish a copy of the apprenticeship agreement to the Bureau and Apprenticeship Division of Regional Office concerned and the agency which shall provide related theoretical instructions if the employer is not the one who will give such instructions. The copies shall be sent by the employer within five (5) working days from the date of execution thereof. If the agreement is found defective and serious damage would be sustained by either party if such defect is not corrected, the Apprenticeship Division shall advise the employer within five (5) working days not to implement the agreement pending amendment thereof. Other defects may be correlated without suspending the effectivity of the agreement.cralaw:red

SECTION 24. Enforcement of agreement. — No person shall institute any action for the enforcement of any apprenticeship agreement or for damages for breach thereof, unless he has exhausted all available administrative remedies. The plant apprenticeship committee shall have initial responsibility for settling differences arising out of apprenticeship agreements.cralaw:red

SECTION 25. Valid cause to terminate agreement. — Either party to an agreement may terminate the same after the probationary period only for a valid cause. The following are valid causes for termination:

By the employer — (a) Habitual absenteeism in on-the-job training and related theoretical instructions;

(b) Willful disobedience of company rules or insubordination to lawful order of a superior;

(c) Poor physical condition, permanent disability or prolonged illness which incapacitates the apprentice from working;

(d) Theft or malicious destruction of company property and/or equipment;

(e) Poor efficiency or performance on the job or in the classroom for a prolonged period despite warnings duly given to the apprentice; and

(f) Engaging in violence or other forms of gross misconduct inside the employer's premises.

By the apprentice — (a) Substandard or deleterious working conditions within the employer's premises:

(b) Repeated violations by the employer of the terms of the apprenticeship agreement;

(c) Cruel or inhuman treatment by the employer or his subordinates;

(d) Personal problems which in the opinion of the apprentice shall prevent him from a satisfactory performance of his job; and

(e) Bad health or continuing illness.

SECTION 26. Procedure of termination. — The procedure for effecting termination shall be embodied in appropriate instructions to be prepared by the Bureau and approved by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.

SECTION 27. Theoretical instructions by employer. — Related theoretical instructions to apprentices may be undertaken by the employer himself if he has adequate facilities and qualified instructors for the purpose. He shall indicate his intention to assume such responsibility in the apprenticeship standard of his program. The course outline and the bio-data of the instructors who will conduct the course shall conform with the standards set by the Department.cralaw:red

SECTION 28. Ratio of theoretical instruction and on-the-job training. — The normal ratio is one hundred (100) hours of theoretical instructions for every two thousand (2,000) hours of practical or on-the-job training. Theoretical instructions time for occupations requiring less than two thousand hours for proficiency shall be computed on the basis of such ratio.cralaw:red

SECTION 29. Wages. — The wage rate of the apprentice shall start at seventy five (75%) per cent of the statutory minimum wage for the first six (6) months; thereafter, he shall be paid the full minimum wage, including the full cost of living allowance.cralaw:red

SECTION 30. Tripartite apprenticeship committees. — The creation of a plant apprenticeship committee for every apprenticeship program shall be necessary. The Department of Labor and Employment shall encourage the organization of apprenticeship committees at trade, industry or other levels. As much as possible these committees shall consist of management, labor and government representatives.cralaw:red

SECTION 31. Non-tripartite committees. — Where tripartism is not feasible, the apprenticeship committee may be composed of:

(a) Technical personnel in the plant, trade or industry concerned;

(b) Labor and management representatives.

Representatives of cooperative, civic and other groups may also participate in such committees.

SECTION 32. Duties of apprenticeship committees. — An apprenticeship committee at any level shall be responsible for the following duties:

(a) Act as liaison between the apprentice and the employees;

(b) Mediate and/or settle in the first instance differences between the employer and the apprentices arising out of an apprenticeship agreement;

(c) Maintain a constant follow-up on the technical progress of the program and of the apprentices in particular;

(d) Recommend to the Apprenticeship Division of the Regional Office concerned the issuance of certificates of completion to apprentices.

SECTION 33. Creation of ad hoc advisory committees. — The Secretary of Labor and Employment may create ad hoc committees consisting of representatives of management, labor and government on the national, regional and local levels to advise and assist him in the formulation of policy, promotion of apprenticeship and other matters he may deem appropriate to refer to them.

SECTION 34. Use of training centers. — The Department may utilize the facilities and services of the National Manpower and Youth Council, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports and other public training institutions for the training of apprentices.cralaw:red

SECTION 35. Coordination of training activities. — The apprenticeship Division shall coordinate with the above training centers all activities relating to apprenticeship. The Bureau, through the Apprenticeship Division, shall provide technical guidance and advice to the centers.cralaw:red

SECTION 36. Priority in use of training centers. — Priority in the use of training centers shall be given to recognized apprenticeship programs in skills which are highly in demand in specific regions or localities as determined through surveys. The Bureau shall recommend to the Secretary of Labor and Employment the establishment of priorities based on data supplied by the Bureau of Local Employment, Labor Statistics Service, the National Manpower and Youth Council, and its own fundings. The Secretary of Labor and Employment may, however, also act on the basis of petitions presented by qualified entities which are willing to bear the costs of training.cralaw:red

SECTION 37. Issuance of certificates. — Upon completion of his training, the apprentice shall be issued a certificate of completion of apprenticeship by the Apprenticeship Division of the Regional Office concerned.cralaw:red

SECTION 38. Certificate of meritorious service. — A certificate of meritorious service may be awarded by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to apprenticeship committees or other entities which have rendered outstanding service to the cause of apprenticeship.cralaw:red

SECTION 39. Certificate, evidence of skills. — A certificate of completion of apprenticeship shall be evidence of the skills specified therein in accordance with national skills standards established by the Department.cralaw:red

SECTION 40. Apprenticeship without compensation. — The Secretary of Labor and Employment through the Apprenticeship Division, may authorize the hiring of apprentices without compensation whose training on the job is required by the school curriculum as a prerequisite for graduation or for taking a government board examination.cralaw:red

SECTION 41. Compulsory apprenticeship. — (a) When grave national emergencies, particularly those involving the security of the state, arise or particular requirements of economic development so demand, the Secretary of Labor and Employment may recommend to the President of the Philippines the compulsory training of apprentices required in a certain trades, occupations, jobs or employment levels where shortage of trained manpower is deemed critical;

(b) Where services of foreign technicians are utilized by private companies in apprenticeable trades said companies are required to set up appropriate apprenticeship programs.cralaw:red

SECTION 42. Certification from Apprenticeship Division. — An employer desiring to avail of the tax deduction provided under the Code shall secure from the Apprenticeship Division a certification that his apprenticeship program was operational during the taxable year concerned. Such certification shall be attached to the employer's income tax returns for the particular year. Guidelines for the issuance of such certification shall be prepared by the Bureau and approved by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.


SECTION 1. Definition of terms. — (a) "Learner" is a person hired as a trainee in industrial occupations which are non-apprenticeable and which may be learned through practical training on the job for a period not exceeding three (3) months, whether or not such practical training is supplemented by theoretical instructions.cralaw:red

(b) "Learnership agreement" refers to the employment and training contract entered into between the employer and the learner.cralaw:red

SECTION 2. When learners may be employed. — Learners may be employed when no experienced workers are available, the employment of learners being necessary to prevent curtailment of employment opportunities, and such employment will not create unfair competition in terms of labor costs nor impair working standards.cralaw:red

SECTION 3. Approval of learnership program. — Any employer who intends to employ learners shall submit in writing to the Apprenticeship Division of the Regional Office concerned, copy furnished the Bureau, his learnership program, which the Division shall evaluate to determine if the occupation involved is learnable and the program is sufficient for the purpose of training. Within five (5) working days from receipt of the program, the Division shall make known its decision to the employer concerned. A learnership program shall be subject to periodic inspection by the Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representative.cralaw:red

SECTION 4. Contents of learnership agreement. — A learnership agreement, shall include:

(a) The names and addresses of the employer and the learner;

(b) The occupation to be learned and the duration of the training period which shall not exceed three (3) months;

(c) The wage of learner which shall be at least 75 percent of the applicable minimum wage; and

(d) A commitment to employ the learner, if he so desires, as a regular employee upon completion of training.cralaw:red

A learner who has worked during the first two months shall be deemed a regular employee if training is terminated by the employer before the end of the stipulated period through no fault of the learner.cralaw:red

SECTION 5. Parties to learnership agreement. — Every learnership agreement shall be signed by the employer or his duly authorized agent and by the learner. A learnership agreement with a minor shall be signed by the learner with the conformity of his parent or guardian.cralaw:red

The employer shall furnish a copy each of the learnership agreement to the learner, the Bureau, and the Apprenticeship Division of the appropriate Regional Office within five (5) working days following its execution by the parties.cralaw:red

SECTION 6. Employment of minors as learners. — A minor below fifteen (15) years of age shall not be eligible for employment as a learner. Those below eighteen (18) years of age may only be employed in non-hazardous occupations.cralaw:red

SECTION 7. Cancellation of learnership programs. — The Secretary of Labor and Employment may cancel any learnership program if upon inquiry it is found that the justification for the program no longer exists.

Handicapped Workers

SECTION 1. Definition of terms. — (a) "Handicapped workers" are those whose earning capacity is impaired by age or physical or mental deficiency or injury.cralaw:red

(b) "Employment agreement" is the contract of employment entered into between the employer and the handicapped worker.cralaw:red

SECTION 2. When handicapped workers may be employed. — Handicapped workers may be employed when their employment is necessary to prevent curtailment of employment opportunities and when it does not create unfair competition in labor costs or impair working standards.cralaw:red

SECTION 3. Contents of employment agreement. — An employer who hires a handicapped worker shall enter into an employment agreement with the latter which shall include:

(a) The names and addresses of the employer and the handicapped worker;

(b) The rate of pay of the handicapped worker which shall not be less than seventy-five (75%) percent of the legal minimum wage;

(c) The nature of work to be performed by the handicapped worker; and

(d) The duration of the employment.cralaw:red

SECTION 4. Copy of agreement to be furnished to Division. — A copy each of the employment agreement shall be furnished by the employer to the handicapped worker and the Apprenticeship Division involved. The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representative may inspect from time to time the working conditions of handicapped workers to verify compliance by the parties with their employment agreement.cralaw:red

SECTION 5. Eligibility for apprenticeship. — Handicapped workers shall not be precluded from employment as apprentices or learners if their handicap is not such as to effectively impede the performance of job operations in the particular trade or occupation which is the subject of the apprenticeship or learnership program.

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